leaf shape & size variation

Established clonal seed orchard (CSO) of 25 clones of sandal of diverse origin at S.V. University, Tirupati during 1998 in collaboration with S.V. University, Tirupati and IWST, Bangalore as a source of quality seed. Currently CSO is managed by S.V. University, Tirupati.

Established seedling seed orchard cum progeny trial of 20 families of sandalwood of diverse origin (Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh) in about 1.0 ha area during 2004 at Gottipura, near Bangalore.

Established germplasm bank of sandal at Gottipura consisting of seedlings raised from 20 seed sources (12 from Karnataka, 4 from Tamil Nadu, 2 from Kerala, one each from Orissa and Madhya Pradesh) during 2007 in about 1.0 ha area.

Sapwood and heartwood in core sample

Restocking of 38 clones in clonal germplasm bank of sandalwood was carried out during 2003-2004 at Gottipura, Bangalore as a source of vegetative material for clonal production of planting material and establishment of seed orchards.

Studies on sandal accessions (clones in clonal germplasm) of diverse (from Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh) origin revealed that at the age of 20 years, variation was observed in economic traits such as; heartwood content, oil content and morphological traits

Variation in seed

Sandalwood seed has viability of 9 months at room temperature.Seed storage studies revealed that depulped and dried seed can be stored at 5°C temperature and reduced moisture upto 24 months in air tight plastic or metallic containers..

Developed modern nursery practices for the production of quality seedlings of sandal in root trainers and polybags.

Seed collection: Improved source, Seed stand/CSO/SSO
Root trainer : 270 cc block type
Potting medium: Sand : Soil : Compost : Rice husk : Charcoal (25:15:50:5:5) or Sand : soil : compost (30:10:60)
Primary host : Mimosa pudica (Touch me not)
Biofertilizer : Glomus fasciculatum and Glomus mossae

Sandalwood quality seedling production in root trainers

Developed protocols for in vitro cloning of plus trees/mature trees of sandalwood through axillary shoot proliferation. In vitro multiplied shoots induced roots under in vitro and ex vitro conditions. Adventitious shoot induction from leaf segments of in vitro shoot culture of mature trees obtained in 4 weeks period. Subsequent shoot elongation and multiplication could be achieved on MS medium with additives + IAA +BAP + activated charcoal. In vitro shoot induced from the leaf exhibited rooting in 6-7 weeks on MS/4 medium with IAA +IBA. Refined process developed for somatic embryogenesis from leaf segments of mature sandalwood trees through callus phase. Synchronized somatic embryo induction and maturation was obtained within 8 weeks period. High frequency somatic embryo germination was obtained in MS/4 medium with IAA + GA3.

Quality seedlings of sandalwood production in polybags

Conservation of Sandal (Santalum album L.) germplasm, production of quality planting stock and promotion of sandal cultivation practices. Since 2007, every year about 60,000 quality seedlings are raised in root trainers and polybags and provided to the end users like; farmers, sandal based plantation companies, SFD’s and NGO’s. In order to broaden genetic base of germplasm bank of sandal, scion material was collected for grafting work from various sources.