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WOOD ANATOMY, PROPERTIES AND USES

  • M. Sujatha, S.K. Sharma, R.V. Rao and A.K. Sethy (2007). "Evaluation of anatomical properties of seven year old plantation grown Simarouba glauca". J. Timber Dev. Assoc. of India.  Vol. 52(3&4): 14-32

The stem wood and branch wood of seven-year-old Simarouba glauca DC trees, grown under wasteland development programme, have been studied to evaluate the anatomical properties, which have influence on strength properties. The pith to periphery variation in specific gravity, fibre length, fibre diameter, fibre lumen diameter, double wall thickness, vessel diameter and vessel element length was investigated. A comparison of stem wood and branch wood indicate that quantitative differences are marginal between these two plant parts. This variation (significant and non-significant) is expected because of the functional attributes of cell types, which they have to perform depending upon where it is positioned in a standing tree.

  • P. Kumar, S.R. Shukla, R. Sudheendra, M. Sujatha, S. Shashikala, S.K. Sharma, A.K. Sethy and R.V. Rao (2007). "Evaluation of wood quality parameters of plantation grown Eucalyptus citriodora Hook (lemon scented gum)". Indian Forester. Vol. 134(2): 255-262.

Variation of shrinkage (radial, tangential, volumetric and longitudinal) and specific gravity with moisture content has been studied in wood of seven-year-old plantation grown Simarouba glauca. The shrinkage decreases with increase in moisture content and relates to standard specific gravity in a positive way. The standard specific gravity increases with decreasing moisture content. Since the shrinkage values observed are very low, it is suggested that the wood may be utilized for different purposes where high dimensional stability against changes in moisture content is desirable. Low value of specific gravity suggests that the timber is light and useful for making toys and other handicraft items by artisans.

  • Sharma, S.K, Y.M. Dubey, Dhyan Singh, K.H. Shankaranarayana,  G.Ravikumar and R.V. Rao. (2005).   Effect of  ammonia treatment on strength properties and  internal structure of coconut (Cocos nucifera) wood. Journal of  Acad. of wood  science. 2:1: 18-24.

The effect  of vapour phase ammonia treatment on mechanical properties (fibre stress at elastic limit, modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, compressive stress at maximum load, compressive stress at elastic limit and hardness) of coconut (Cocos nucifera) wood is reported at around 12% moisture content.  A comparison of results indicates quantitative differences but not statistically significant between treated and untreated wood.  The internal structure of treated and untreated wood, examined under microscope, showed no differences between the two.  The IR spectrum of wood treated with ammonia showed no change in the O-H absorption bands occurring in the region 3500-2600 cm-1 and absence of peak at 1742 cm -1 is an indication of occurrence of chemical reaction between ammonia and carboxyl group of wood.

  • Sila  Tripati, M.Sujatha, R.Vijendra Rao., and K.Satyanarayana Rao. (2005).  Use of timber in shipbuilding industry: Identification and analysis of  timber from shipwrecks off Goa coast, India.  Current Science 89: 6:  1022-1027.

The use of timber in the boat-building or shipbuilding industry is as old as the construction of boats and ships.  Various kinds of timber are used in different regions of India in the construction of vessels.  The Yuktikalpataru (the wishing  tree of artifice) composed by the king Bhoja of Dhar (11th century AD) gives a detailed account of boats, ships and the variety of wood used for construction and classification of ships.  Further, the text also mentions the quality  of timber that is required for construction of seagoing  ships, which could resist the action of waves, currents  and marine biofouling; above all, it would bring joy and wealth.  In order to locate the remains of ships, cargo and their history, maritime archaeological explorations were carried out off Goa, which brought to light timber from the century old shipwreck off St George's Reef and an iron anchor with a wooden stock 300 years old from Aguada waters.  Radiocarbon dating and anatomical analysis of these two timbers were obtained to understand their age and to know the tree species.  This communication details the anatomical analysis of timber and associated findings from the sites.  Their tentative dates are ascribed to the findings in relation to the maritime history of the Goa region along the central west coast of India.  Additionally, the study put forth the view that Indian teak was extensively used by Indian and foreign shipbuilders because of its high quality.
Dielectric properties at microwave frequency (9.55 GHz) of seven plantation timbers in longitudinal and transverse (radial/tangential) directions in oven dry condition were determined along with anatomical properties (fibre length, fibre diameter, wall thickness, fibre lumen diameter, vessel diameter, vessel element length, percentage of fibers and fibre wall material per unit area).  It was observed that dielectric constant of wood increases with increasing specific gravity and the values of dielectric constant and loss tangent are higher in longitudinal than transverse (radial/tangential) directions.  It has also been observed that dielectric properties of timber decrease with increasing fibre lumen diameter. There was no specific type of relationship between dielectric and other measured anatomical  properties.

  • Vijendra Rao, R, S.Shashikala, P.Sreevani and V.Kothial. (2005). Clonal variation in basic density and anatomical properties of Eucalyptus tereticornis- Four to five years. The Indian Forester 131:9: 1187-1198.

The basic density and anatomical properties of five clones of Eucalyptus tereticornis developed by ITC Bhadrachalam are reported.  The five clones represented by four trees each, of 4-5  year old were from Sarpaka demonstration plot, Andhra Pradesh, India.  Intra-clonal variation was significant in basic density, vessel diameter, vessel element length, fibre length, fibre diameter, fibre wall thickness, while variation in tissue proportions were non significant.  However, inter-clonal variation was significant for all the parameters.  Basic density was positively correlated with vessel diameter and percentage of rays, while girth has a negative influence on fibre diameter and fibre wall thickness.  Fibre length, fibre diameter and fibre lumen diameter were positively inter-correlated, while negative correlations were observed among the tissue proportions.  Vessel diameter was also correlated positively with ray percentage and negatively with vessel percentage.  All these correlations are suggestive of spatial adjustments in quantitative characteristics among different cell types.  

  • Shukla, S.R., S.K. Sharma, Y.M.Dubey, P.Kumar, R.V. Rao and K.S. Shashidhar. ( 2005).  Need to develop processing technologies (for value   addition) of the species evaluated for their properties and uses.  Paper presented in the workshop "The International Research Group on wood    protection. IRG/WP 05- 40307.

The demand of timber in India for different industrial as well as domestic applications is ever increasing mostly due to urbanization and industrialization.  This demand can only be met either from the imported timber or from the plantation resources outside the reserved and natural forests.  There are a number of timber species grown under plantation forestry having their heartwood refractory to any chemical treatment or very difficult to treat but naturally durable.  Heartwood of such timbers need no preservative treatment.  Although species like Acacia crassicarpa, Cupressus goveniana, Cupressus lusitanica, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Gironniera reticulata, Mastixia arborea and Sterculia urens are found to have a number of applications but they can not be recommended at present for different uses, either in contact with ground or high humidity conditions, due to non availability of information on their durability and their amenability to preservative treatment.  The general features and internal anatomical structure of woods of these species suggest that preservative treatment is possible for value addition leading to large-scale applications. For this, improved processing technologies are to be developed and proper market supports are essential. The success story of utilization potential of rubber wood in India based on R & D efforts is a case worth mentioning and some of the durable timbers can also be used for different purposes identified. Acacia auriculaeformis is found to be suitable for furniture and if proper seasoning and preservative treatments are followed, this species has tremendous scope in furniture industry.  This will lead to an acceptable level of these species by the consumers and also lessen the burden on the primary timbers. 

  • Sharma, S.K, Y.M. Dubey, and R.V. Rao. (2005). Estimation of strength   properties of timbers, bamboo and palms by non destructive test method. Annals of forestry 13(2): 304-310.

Vibration testing technique was used to determine dynamic modulus of elasticity of Acacia auriculaeformis, A.mangium, Bombax ceiba, Broussonetia papyrifera, E.tereticornis, Grevillea robusta, Hevea brasiliensis, Pinus spp, Santalum album, Shorea robusta, Simarouba glauca, Swietenia mahagoni and Tectona grandis in air dry condition using microprocessor based elasto-sonic instrument.  Static modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture and fibre stress at limit of proportionality were evaluated by conventional test method.  The results show statistically significant relationship of dynamic modulus of elasticity with static modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture and fibre stress at limit of proportionality.  Variation in dynamic modulus of elasticity was explained from the point of view of anatomical structure.

  • Vijendra Rao, R, S.Shashikala, P.Kumar and K.V. Devar. (2005). Preliminary studies on physico-mechanical and anatomical properties of candidate-plus- culms of Bambusa bambos(L.) Voss, Besch.  Journal of Indian Academy of Wood Science 2(1): 59-67.

Two year old culms of candidate plus clumps of Bambusa bambos were tested for specific gravity, fibre stress at elastic limit, modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity besides certain anatomical properties for finding variations, if any, from the material raised in bambusatum at college of forestry, Sirsi, Karnataka.  The results indicated variation within a CPC and between CPC's in all the properties studied.  The data further indicated that certain CPC's are superior to non-CPC culms in their properties

  • Vijendra Rao, R., S.Shashikala, and S.G.Sawant(2005). Anatomy of branch wood and aerial root wood of certain mangroves. Journal of Timber Development Association of India. 51: 3 & 4.54- 69.

Branch wood anatomy of Avicennia officinalis, Kandelia candel, Rhizophora mucronata and Sonneratia alba were investigated for their anatomy.  The anatomy of aerial root wood of Sonneratia alba was also investigated. Data  pertaining to vessel morphology was discussed from the point of their water conducting efficiency and water conducting safety.  Scalariform branched perforation plates in vessels of Kandelia candel were observed.  Branch wood anatomy was compared with aerial root and stem wood anatomy.

  • Kumar, P., R.Vijendra Rao, S.R. Shukla and R.Sudheendra. ( 2006). Physical and Mechanical properties of plantation grown Acacia mangium from Karnataka. Indian Journal of Forestry 29(1): 31-34.

Physical and mechanical properties  of Acacia mangium of nine years  old obtained from Sirsi, Karnataka  have been reported.  The results obtained have been compared with Tectona granids (teak). Timber of this species is classified as heavy, moderately strong, not tough and moderately hard. 

 

Wood Seasoning & Preservation

  • Pandey K. K. (1999). A study of chemical structure of soft and hardwood  and wood polymers by FTIR spectroscopy.  Journal of Applied   Polymer Science, Vol. 71, 1969-1975.

Hard and softwood and wood constituent polymers (cellulose and lignin) were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.  The hollocellulose to lignin ratio was estimated for some of the timber species.  The structural difference between Klason lignin isolated from softwood (Pinus roxburghii and Cupressus lusitanica) and hardwood (Acacia auriculaeformis and Eucalyptus tereticornis) species was studied.

  • Pandey K. K, N. K. Upreti and V.V. Srinivasan. (1998). A fluorescence spectroscopic study on wood.  Wood Science and Technology, Vol.  32, 309-315.     

Fluorescence spectroscopy has been suggested as an important tool for identification of timber (Krishna, Chowdhury 1935; Dyer 1988; Sum et al. 1991).   In the present study measurements of fluorescence excitation and emission spectra from solid wood blocks, powder and their extract in methanol from heartwood of Acacia nilotica (Babul), Albizia lebbek (Kokko), Pterocarpus marsupium (Bijasal), Toona ciliata (Toon), Tectona grandis (Teak) and Eucalyptus tereticornis (Eucalypt) have been made.  Fluorescence spectra obtained from solid dry wood is independent of excitation wavelength, whereas those obtained from extract exhibited excitation wavelength dependence indicating presence of many fluorescent chemicals. The need for systematic study of wood extracts in different polar and non polar solvents, which would be useful for purposes of identification of wood species, is stressed.

  • Pandey  K. K and N. Chandrashekar. (2006). Photostability of wood  surfaces esterified by benzoyl chloride.  Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 99 (5), 2367-2374.

The photostabilization of wood surfaces is desirable to enhance the life of wood under exterior use and to improve the performance of clear coatings wood surfaces. Chemical modification of wood has been found effective in upgrading properties such as biological durability and dimensional stability and has been suggested as a potential way for inducing photostability on wood surfaces. In this study, the photostability of chemically modified wood was assessed under accelerated weathering conditions. Wood specimens of Pinus roxburghii (Chir pine) were esterified with benzoyl chloride to 19.5 wt % gain and exposed to a xenon arc light source in a Weather-O-Meter for different periods ranging from 0 to 500 h. The irradiated samples were analyzed for color changes and chemical changes. The analysis of color changes in wood surfaces by ultraviolet- visible irradiation was carried out with a color  measuring (CIELAB) system, and chemical changes were characterized with fluorescence and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The esterification of wood by benzoyl chloride suppressed the color changes (photodiscoloration) due to irradiation. Modification also reduced the lignin degradation and generation of carbonyl groups on the surface of the irradiated wood. The fluorescence emission spectra of irradiated unmodified wood showed a large reduction in intensity and a large redshift in the emission maximum, whereas modified wood showed only a small change in fluorescence intensity on irradiation. The results show that the esterification of wood with benzoyl chloride was effective for the photostabilization of the wood polymers

  • Pandey K. K. (2005). Study of the effect of photo-irradiation on the surface chemistry of wood. Polymer Degradation and Stability, Vol. 90 (1), 9-20.

The effect of UV-Visible light irradiation on the changes in colour and chemical composition of wood surfaces of Pinus roxburghii (chir pine, a softwood) and Hevea brasiliensis (rubber wood, a hardwood) was studied.   Analysis of color changes in wood surfaces during photodegradation was carried out by measuring CIELAB parameters (L*, a*, b* and DE*). FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to study chemical changes caused by irradiation.  Irradiation modified physical and chemical characteristics of wood surfaces and resulted in rapid color changes, degradation of lignin and increased concentration of chromophoric groups on the wood surfaces. Overall color changes (DE* values) correlate well with degradation of lignin and relative increase in the concentration of carbonyl groups determined by FTIR measurements.  Fluorescence emission spectra measured from unexposed wood surfaces show excitation wavelength dependence.  Photo irradiation leads to a rapid reduction in the emission intensity, broadening of spectra and a significant red shift in the fluorescence emission maximum.  Fluorescence quenching is related to the carbonyl formation.

  • Pandey, K. K. (2005). A note on the influence of extractives on the photo-discolouration and photo-degradation of wood. Polymer Degradation and Stability, Vol. 87, 375-379.

The effect of presence of  extractives on colour changes (photo-discoloration) and   photo-degradation of wood surfaces of Acacia auriculaeformis due to UV-Visible irradiation has been examined.  Unextracted and extractive free specimens were irradiated with a 1000-Watt xenon source in a Weather-O-Meter and exposed surfaces were analyzed for colour and chemical changes.  Extractive free specimen exhibited a monotonous increase in color change with increasing irradiation time.  Unextracted wood surfaces showed a rapid color change at initial period of exposure, which decreases upon prolonged exposure.  Analysis of      color changes and FTIR spectra measured from irradiated wood surfaces indicate that presence of extractives increases rate of photo-discoloration and result in an apparent increase in rate of delignification of wood surfaces in the initial period of exposure.  The apparent increased rate of delignification in unextrated wood has been explained on the basis of photodegradation of poly-phenolic extractives present in wood.

  • Upreti N. K and K. K. Pandey.  (2005). Role of pretreatments in the protection of wood surface and finishes in the weathering of Pterocarpus marsupium wood.  Journal of Tropical Forest Science, Vol. 17(1), 141-150.

Wood samples of Pterocarpus marsupium (bijasal) treated with aqueous solutions of ammoniacal copper ferricyanide, acid copper chromate, acid copper chrome arsenate, ammoniacal copper chromate and ammoniacal copper chrome ferricyanide were studied for outdoor weathering.  The treated and untreated wood samples were coated with three type of commercially available wood finishes, viz. polyurethane finish, synthetic enamel and acrylic emulsion paints before exposing to the outdoor.  Paint performance was studied for different periods of outdoor exposure.  Results indicated that pretreatment of wood surface with the inorganic salt solutions helps in imparting water repellency and dimensional stabilization to the wood, resulting in increased service life of opaque and transparent coating over it.  These treatments also slow down the photo-degradation of wood surface and inhibit fungal growth over it.  Out of the five treatments used, the acid copper chromate provided the best protection to outdoor exposed wood surface.

  • Pandey K. K. (2005). Correlation between changes in colour and chemical composition during photo-degradation of wood surfaces.  International Research   Group on Wood Protection. Document No. IRG/WP 05-40301.

Changes in colour of wood (yellowing) during photo degradation or weathering reflect chemical changes in wood.  Therefore, the relationship between changes in chemical composition and CIELAB colour parameters is very important to characterize photodegradation of lignocellulosic surfaces.  In this study, the changes in chemical composition and yellowing due to photo-degradation was studied by exposing wood surfaces of Pinus roxburghii (chir pine) to a xenon source.  Changes in chemical composition were monitored by measuring IR and fluorescence spectra and were correlated with colour changes.  A linear correlation between degradation of lignin and total colour change (DE) was observed.

  • Pandey K. K. (2004). Photodegradation of unmodified and chemically modified wood surfaces. Proceedings of 3rd International Symposium on Surfacing and Finishing of Wood, Kyoto, Japan, 75-86.

This paper describes the results on colour and chemical changes on wood surfaces of Pinus roxburghii (chir pine) and Hevea brasiliensis (rubber wood)  during photo degradation.  Analysis of color changes in wood surfaces due to UV-Vis. irradiation was  carried out using a color measuring system (CIELAB  parameters).  Fluorescence and  FTIR spectroscopy were used to study the changes  caused by photoirradiation on unmodified and modified wood surfaces.  Effect of  irradiance level (intensity of light source) and structure of surface cut (tangential  or radial face)  on color difference was studied.  Besides, the effect of presence of  extractives on   photo-discoloration and degradation of wood surfaces of Acacia   auriculaeformis is discussed.  Results on color and chemical changes of wood modified by Acetic anhydride, Maleic anhydride,Phthalic anhydride and  Benzoyl chloride are also compared. 

  • Pandey K. K. (2004). Photo-discoloration and degradation of wood and its tabilisation by modification with benzoyl chloride.  International Research Group on Wood preservation, Document No. IRG/WP 04-40274.

Photo degradation of Pinus roxburghii (chir pine) and Hevea brasiliensis (rubberwood) was studied under artificial accelerated weathering conditions in a Xenon test

chamber. The irradiated samples were analyzed for color changes and chemical changes.  Analysis of color changes in wood surfaces by UV-Vis. irradiation was carried out using a color measuring (CIELAB) system and chemical changes were monitored using FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy. Irradiation modified physical and chemical characteristics of wood surfaces and resulted in rapid color changes, reduction in lignin content and increased concentration of chromophoric groups on the wood surfaces.  Color changes were correlated with formation of carbonyl groups and lignin decay rate determined by FTIR measurements.  Fluorescence emission spectra measured from un-weathered wood shows excitation wavelength dependence.  Photo irradiation leads to a rapid reduction in the emission intensity, broadening of spectra and a significant red shift in the emission maximum Photo stability of wood surfaces esterified with benzoyl chloride was also assessed. The modification was characterized and analyzed by fluorescence and FTIR spectroscopy and photo-stability of modified wood was assessed. Esterification of wood by benzoyl chloride suppressed the colour changes (photo-discoloration) and also reduced the lignin degradation and generation of carbonyl groups on irradiated wood surfaces. Results show esterification of wood with benzoyl chloride was effective at inhibiting photo-degradation of wood polymers

  • Pandey K. K. (2003). Natural and accelerated weathering of rubber wood. Proceedings of Symposium on Advances in Polymeric Building Materials, POLY BUILT, Roorkee, 130- 136.

Wood is versatile and widely used structural engineering material for indoor and outdoor applications.  In exterior use, it is subjected to varying environmental conditions resulting in physical deterioration, discolouration, surface roughening, cracking and damage of the microstructure.  Weathering affects physical and mechanical properties of wood and also results in premature coating failure.  In this paper, results of deterioration of wood surfaces of rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis) under natural and accelerated weathering conditions are presented.  Effects of weathering on physical and chemical deterioration of wood surfaces are discussed.  FTIR spectroscopic studies of weathered wood surfaces show a rapid delignification and degradation of hemicellulsoe.  Stabilisation against weathering by treatment of wood surfaces with inorganic chemicals (chromium and Iron compounds) and chemical modification of cell wall polymers by acetic anhydride and benzoyl chloride is also discussed

  • Pandey K. K. and A.J. Pitman. (2002). Weathering characteristics of modified rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis).  Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 85, 622-631.

Surfaces of rubber wood treated with dilute aqueous solutions of chromium trioxide, chromic nitrate, ferric chloride, and ferric nitrate and modified with acetic anhydride were weathered outdoors for periods from 1 day to 1 year.  Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, light  microscopy (LM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to analyzechemical and microscopic changes in treated and untreated weathered wood surfaces.   Severe delignifcation and hemicellulose degradation occurred in untreated samples, evident from rapid decreases in IR band intensities at 1505 and 1740 cm-1, respectively.  Surface delignification occurred after 1 day's exposure with severe lignin loss within 2-3 days and almost complete surface delignification after 1 week of exposure.  Fluorescence spectra of weathered wood surfaces showed a rapid decrease in intensity and a large red shift in emission maxima.  Scanning electron microscopy of untreated wood surfaces exposed for 125 and 360 days showed them to have ridges in the S3 cell-wall layer adjacent to the lumen, together with wall checking and pit degradation.  Fungal spores and hyphae were observed in cell lumens. Pretreatment of wood surfaces with chromium trioxide (chromium VI compound) significantly restricted weathering deterioration and microbial colonization, whereas ferric chloride was most effective in preventing microbial colonization. Acetylation also partially prevented delignification and fungal staining

  • Upreti, N.K. , K. K. Pandey and A. K. Ananthanarayana. (1999). Prevention of extractive leaching by chemical treatements of wood surface.  Holzforschung, Vol. 53, 675-676.

Wood of Pterocarpus marsupium (bijasal) contains high content of water-soluble extractives, leaching of which restricts its use outdoors. Extractive leaching was successfully arrested by treatment of wood surfaces with dilute queous solutions of few water repellent inorganic salts.  Pretreatments were also successful in minimizing the extractive staining for water based acrylic paints coatings.

  • Pandey K. K, S. S. Chauhan and P. K. Aggarwal. (1998). Reaction of wood with inorganic salts.   Holz als Roh-und Werkstoff, Vol. 56, 412-415.

Wood samples and veneers of Hevea brsiliensis (Rubber wood) and Acacia auriculaeformis treated with aqueous solutions of chromium trioxide, ferric chloride and ferric nitrate were studied for water repellency and their reaction with wood constituents. FTIR spectra obtained from wood surface treated with chromium trioxide indicate the formation of a water insoluble complex between chromium trioxide and aromatic ring of lignin, whereas no reaction takes place with ferric salts.  Treatment of wood by chromium trioxide was found to be effective in imparting water repellency in wood.

  • K. K. Pandey and D. P. Khali. (1998). Accelerated weathering of wood surfaces modified by chromium trioxide.   Holzforschung, Vol. 52, 467-471.

Samples of Hevea brasiliensis (Rubber wood) treated with dilute aqueous solution of chromium trioxide along with untreated specimens were exposed to artificially generated weathering conditions.  Results show a severe deterioration of wood surfaces in untreated specimens, which is mainly due to loss of lignin. IR spectroscopic analysis indicated an increase in the concentration of carbonyl chromophoric functional groups in exposed wood surfaces, whereas aromatic functional groups due to lignin decreased with irradiation time.  Treatment of wood with an aqueous solution of chromium trioxide was found to restrict surface deterioration remarkably.  DRIFT spectra obtained from exposed wood surfaces provide direct evidence of modification and stabilization of lignin due to formation of a photo-stable complex in treated samples.

  • Pandey K. K and K. S. Theagarajan. (1997). Analysis of wood surfaces and ground  wood by diffuse reflectance (DRIFT) and photoacoustic (PAS) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic techniques.  Holz als Roh-und Werkstoff, Vol. 55, 383-390.

Infrared diffuse reflectance and photoacoustic spectra were measured from wood powder and solid blocks and compared with the corresponding transmission spectra measured from thin wood section.  Studies indicated that high quality spectra could be obtained from either solid wood blocks or powder by diffuse reflectance (DRIFT) and photoacoustic (PAS) techniques.  Positions of IR bands measured from different hard wood species by DRIFT and PAS technique are approximately same.  However, the relative intensities of IR bands vary among species.  For obtaining reproducible DRIFT spectra from the solid wood surfaces, roughness and structure of the cut (tangential, radial or transverse) must be identical.  Whereas, for wood powder, smallest particle size results in best resolved spectrum.  Specular reflection causes distortions in the intensities of the bands in the range 1150 - 950 cm-1, which can be minimised either by diluting sample powder in KBr (concentration < 2 %) or by increasing the surface roughness of the solid block.  FTIR-PAS spectra measured from wood power are quite similar to spectra obtained by transmission and/or DRIFT techniques.  Relative intensity and position of various IR bands measured by photoacoustic technique are independent of size of the particle and its concentration.  These results indicate usefulness of PAS technique over other solid sampling technique

  • Sharma, S.N., Narayanappa P. and Krishna Rao, P.V. (1988). Behaviour of preservtive treated timber in mining use. Journal of Timber Development of Association,  XXXIV, 1

Timbers  are largely used as roof strata supports in tunnels in mine  working to prevent falling rocks from burying  or injuring miners.  In the mines wood supports have numerous advantages over supports of other materials.  Timber is easily available, more easily processed than other materials and can be procured at reasonable cost.  It possesses greater strength than other materials weight for weight.  It can be cut and framed easily.  Wood bends significantly before failure and collapse and thus gives sufficient prior warning of a dangerous roof condition.  Its major drawback is its susceptibility to decay and insect attack when used under adverse conditions for such biodeterioration.

  • Narayanappa, P, and V.V. Srinivasan (1988). Decay of timber in underground mines. Journal of Timber Development of Association of India, XXXIV. 2

In an effort to study the problem of decay in mine timbers, a survey was conducted in underground mining areas at different depths in Bharat  Gold Mines Ltd., K.G.F., Karnataka State.  Wood samples collected from different depths revealed extensive decay in mine timbers on which malformed fruit bodies of decay fungi namely Fomes lividus, poria vincta, Trametes corrugata and polyporus zonalis were identified.  Decay in timbers was found more in return airway passage.  An integrated approach for protection of timber from decay in mines which includes sanitation measures ,use of timber free from decay, regular inspection of timber for occurrence of decay, treatment of timber used in mines after removal of decayed portion and use of timber impregnated with wood preservatives is suggested.

  • Narayanappa, P, S.N.Sharma, and P.V.Krishna Rao, (1990). Performance of preservative treated timber in underground mines after 5 years of exposure.  Journal of Indian Academy of Wood Science, 21: 2: 69-71

After preliminary investigation of biodeteriorating organisms responsible for the decay of timber in underground mines, eucalyuptus and casuarinas lagging poles treated with water soluble preservatives CCA, CCB and ACC along with controls untreated were installed at different depths under varied environmental conditions at Bhart Gold Mines ltd., K.G.F in Karnataka, in May 1985.  Results of 5 years exposure so far have revealed that preservative treated timber poles have continued to be serviceable with only very slight to slight decay under all conditions of water seepage, floor water logging and humidity, while untreated poles have been destroyed within 3-5 years except in locations where no direct water seepage on to the poles occurred.  Water seepage appeared to be the more predominant rapid decaying factor than water logging of the mine floor

  • Narayanappa, P, and S.N. Sharma (1990). Longitudinal gas permeability of refractory Casuarina equisetifolia as affected by steaming and ponding pretreatment. Journal of Indian Academy of Wood Science, 21:1 :5-11

Longitudinal permeability of Casuarina equisetifolia sapwood was found to be significantly increased both by presteaming and ponding (for 45 days) of wood in the green condition. The improvement was more by presteaming than by ponding.  Presteaming also improved permeability in the refractory middle heartwood of this species, but the effect of ponding was insignifican

  • Narayanappa, P., M.Nagaraja Sharma (1990) Performance of water soluble preservative treated fence posts by sap displacement.  Journal of Timber Development Assoication of India XXXVI:2:16-19

This paper presents the data on the performance of preservative treated hardwood fence posts after 21 years of filed exposure. Fence posts treated with relatively higher concentration of CCA and ACC gave correspondingly increased service life.  Treated fence posts were affected by termites mainly through cracks and inner portionof wood.  Despite the retention being erratic and non uniform probably due to variation in moisture content, moisture gradient and sapwood content, fence posts performed quite well under exposed condition.

  • Narayanappa, P.  (1992)   Influence of steaming and ammoniation on longitudinal gas permeability in Acacia nilotica. Journal of Timber Development Association of India XXXVIII, 4:33-38

The effect of steaming and vapour phase ammonia pretreatments on the permeability of Acacia nilotica in the green condition was investigated.  Although  a significant difference was detected between treatments as well as between wood from different zones, presteaming and preammoniation had not improved permeability in all wood zones (outer, middle and inner heartwood) In other words, the permeability of pretreated wood is much less than that of control.

  • Narayanappa, P, S.N. Sharma, P.V. Krishna Rao, (1993). Assessment of preservative treated timber in underground mines after 8 years of exposure.  Journal of Timber Development of Association of India XXXIX, 3: 29-38

This paper presents the data on the performance of water borne preservative treated timber in underground mines after 8 years of exposure.  Eucalyptus and Casuarina poles treated with CCA, CCB and ACC along with controls were nstalled at different depths under varied water seepage and humidity conditions at Bharat Gold Mines Ltd. Kolar Gold filed in May 1985.  Observations were made annually to evaluate the service conditions  of timber.  Results after 8 years of exposure indicated that untreated lagging poles were destroyed within 3-5 years except at location where no direct water seepage occurred.  The untreated poles, at this location have continued to be serviceable with moderate decay.  Preservative treated poles have remained serviceable largely with moderate decay under varied conditions.  Warm and humid air associated with water seepage appeared to be major factors for rapid decay of timber in mines

  • Narayanappa, P. (2003). Influence of steaming on longitudinal and transverse permeability of plantation grown Acacia Nilotica. Journal of Timber Development Association of India. , 49, 1-2

 The permeability of wood is an important factor in wood processing because it is indicative of the ease with which fluids can be transported into or out of wood.  The superficial gas permeability of plantation grown 14 year old Acacia nilotica was measured in this study.  The results were compared to determine if significant differences existed among different steaming periods.  Results were also compared whether any difference existed among inner heartwood, middle heartwood and outer heartwood zones.  Overall, the superficial gas permeability was not affected by pretreatment techniques when compared to control samples, although the increase in permeability was observed with increased steaming period.  On the other hand, statistical significance was established among flow directions, wherein, axial flow was far greater than transverse flow.  Radial permeability was found slightly higher than tangential permeability.

  • Chauhan, S.S. Pankaj K. Aggarwal, Ajay Karmakar and A.K. Ananthanarayana (1997). Sorption and shrinkage behaviour of Acacia auriculaeformis wood.   Journal of Timber Development Association of India  XLIII, 2:5-9

Coefficient of anisotropicity in shrinkage in Acacia auriculaeformis is 58.1% which almost equal to that of Tectona grandis.  Volumetric  shrinkage is found significantly low compared to other plantation grown timbers like Eucalyptus of similar age group.  average hystersis ratio observed in sorption isotherms is 0.78±0.025. Radial and tangential dimensions for a given moisture content are higher during desorption  than in adsorption  state.  State of sorption is found to influence the coefficient of anisotropicity.

  • Nagaraja Sharma, M., D.Venmalar, C.N. Vani and Shalini P.Rao (1998). Studies on the treatment of green Bambusa Arundinacea by sap displacement method.  My Forest, 34(1) 685-696.

Popular bamboo species Bambusa arundinacea was treated by sap displacement method employing two well known preservatives viz., CCA and CCB.  The results indicate that Bamboo can be treated satisfactorily.  Distribution of preservative chemicals in the treated bamboo has also been discussed.

  • Chauhan S.S., P.Aggarwal (2004), Effect of moisture sorption state on transverse dimensional changes in wood. Holz als Roh-und Werkstoff  62: 50-55

The purpose of the study was to understand the transverse dimensional changes and corresponding anisotropicity in wood during different states of moisture sorption.  Oven dried samples of Erythrina variegata, Lannea coromandelica, Gmelina arborea and Albiziachinesiss were adsorbed and subsequently desorbed at constant temperature (35oC).  Tangential and radial dimensional changes (swelling) were analysed with  respect to relative humidty and moisture content during both the states of sorption.  Dimenstions in tangential direction were found to change at a relatively greater rate than in radial direction at high humidities.  IT was observed that transverse dimensions were more during desorption compared to adsorption at a given equilibrium moisture content.  This confirms presence a second order effect of moisture sorption on dimensional movement.  This effect was found to be more prominent  in tangential direction compared to radial direction resulting in higher  coefficient of anisotropy (aT/aR ratio) during desorption.  The magnitude of this phenomenon was found to vary from species to specie

  • Rawat, S.P.S, D.P. Khali, M.D. ale, M.C.Breese (1998). Studies on the Moisture adsorption behaviour  of brown rot decayed and undecayed wood blocks of pinus sylvestris using the brunauer-Emmett-Teller theory.  Holzforschung 52: 5

Comparative studies of the moisture adsorption behaviour of undecayed and brown rot decayed wood blocks of Pinus sylvestris were made.  Experimental adsorption isotherms were obtained.  Analysis of adsorption data in terms of primary and secondary water were carried out using the theory of Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET).  A good agreement between experimentally obtained adsorption isotherms with those obtained using BET theory, validating the use of BET theory in the elucidation of adsorption mechanism.

  • Chauhan, S.S.,  and J.C.F. Walker. (2006). Variations in acoustic velocity and density with age, and their interrelationships in radiata pine.  Forest Ecology and Management 229:388-394.

Acoustic velocity by the Fakopp Time of Flight (ToF) tool was used to estimate outer wood stiffness of trees within stands and between stands of different age classes (ages 8,16 and 5).  The TOF acoustic velocity measured in the standing trees was generally higher than the acoustic velocity measured by the Hitman (resonance) tool on the associated logs.  The  difference between the two velocities tended to be greater in the older and large diameter trees.  The large variability inacoustic velocity, or preferably V2 makes it an efficient wood quality variable for screening trees. Wood density variable did not exhibit any relationship with acoustic velocity or modulus of elasticity (MoE) within each age-class.  The classic pseudo-relationship observed with pooled data from all stand ages is mainly due to a stand age effect and so one should be cautious in relying on any significant association between density and MoE.

  • Shakti, Singh  Chauhan, Kenneth, M. Entwistle and  John C.F Walker. (2005). Differences  in acoustic velocity by resonance and transit time methods in an anisotropic laminated wood medium.  Holzforschung 59: 428-434.

The influence of inhomogeneity on acoustic velocity measured by a resonance-based woodSpec acoustic tool and a transit-time-based Fakopp 2D tool was investigated.  Four laminated panels with different degrees of inhomogeneity were prepared and acoustic velocities were measured using both tools.  Velocities measured by the Fakopp-2D tool were always higher than those measured by the WoodSpec tool in all panels.  The difference in the two velocities was found to vary depending on the magnitude  of inhomogenity.  It was demonstrated that the velocity measured by the resonance frequency obeys the law of mixtures and is controlled by the volume weighted average stiffness of the material.  In contrast, the velocity measured by the Fakopp-2D tool was the velocity of the pulse that first reached the detector traveling at the dilatational speed.

  • S.S. Chauhan, N.K. Upreti, and Anil Sethy. (2006). Drying behaviour of some plantation grown timbers in forced air drying. Journal of Indian Academy of Wood Science. 3:1: 62-68.

The paper presents results of drying behaviour of six plantation grown timbers in forced air-drying carried out at atmospheric equilibrium moisture content level. The forced air-drying accelerated the drying rate without causing any significant drying defects in wood. The method was found to be extremely advantageous when wood was above fibre saturation point where the drying rates were significantly higher as compared to that in air-drying in all the species. Below fibre saturation point, both forced air-drying and air-drying exhibited nearly the same drying rate. Between the species, the rate of drying was much higher in the low-density timber as compared to the high-density timbers.

  • Alex Bradley, Shakti Chauhan, John Walker and Paul Banham. (2005).  Using acoustics in log segregation to optimize energy use in thermomechanical pulping. Appita Journal. 58:4:308-313.

 A mill trial was conducted at Norske Skog Boyer Mill, Tasmania to test the hypothesis that acoustics can be used to segregate pulp logs into catergories which will required different amounts of energy during mechanical pulping and will produce pulps with different strengths. 2247 Pinus radiata logs of varying age and length, SED, LED, taper, and volume were measured for acoustic velocity, segregated into four different velocity groups and chipped separately.  Each chip group was pulped using the thermomechanical pulping process at Norske Skog Boyer using a range of energy inputs. It was shown that acoustics could segregate logs into groups that perform very differently in terms of pulp properties when refined to a given freeness or at a certain energy input.  At a given target freeness there was a 20% difference in energy requirement between the lowest and highest velocity logs.  Similarly there was a 17% difference in tensile strength between the lowest and highest velocity logs for a given specific energy.  Equally significant, acoustics sorting and subsequent reblending has great potential to reduce fluctuations in pulp quality of the mill output.  Acoustic velocity provides a fast and cost effective method of estimating wood properties at any point in the supply chain.

  • Shakti, S. Chauhan, and John Walker (2004). Relationship between longitudinal growth stain and some wood properties in Eucalyptus nitens,  Australian Forestry 67: 4: 254-260.

The relationships between longitudinal growth strain and wood properties of Eucalyptus nitens were investigated.  Sixty-three 10-y-old  trees were selected for this  study.  Longitudinal growth strain, green density, green moisture content, basic density, radial shrinkage, outerwood and corewood densities, volumetric shrinkage and dynamic modulus of elasticity (MoE) at 12% moisture content and length weighed fibre length were determined.  Amongst all the studied  wood properties, only shrinkage-related properties were found to have some association with the mean growth strain in trees. The mean growth strain was moderately but significantly related to the volumetric shrinkage of the outerwood, but not to the shrinkage of the corewood.  However, the volumetric shrinkage  differential (difference between outerwood and corewood shrinkage) was strongly related to the growth strain (r=0.70),  suggesting that the growth stress gradient might be related to variations in shrinkage properties within   the stem.  The wood of trees with the lowest growth strains had statistically significantly lower volumetric shrinkage, lower outerword MoE and less collapse than wood of trees with the highest growth strains.  The results suggest that E.nitens trees with low strains could exhibit a lower degree of drying defects such as collapse and checking during processing

  • Venmalar, D., and H.C. Nagaveni. (2005). Evaluation of copperised cashew nut shell liquid and neem oil as wood preservatives.  Paper presented for    IRG/WP-05-30368 24th and 28th April 2005.

An effort has been made to develop eco-friendly wood preservatives using naturally available plant by products with less toxicity.  Copper was incorporated into cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) and Neem seed oil.  Rubber wood samples were treated with these solutions employing dipping and pressure techniques in 3 different levels. These samples have been evaluated to find out the effectiveness as wood preservatives against decay fungi and termites.  The combinations of copper & CNSL and copper & Neem in pressure treatment have resulted in discernibly high protection against wood rotters and termites. 

 

Wood Biodegradation

  • Cheriyan, P.V., M.V. Rao, R.V. Krishnan, P.V. Krishna Rao, V. Kuppusamy and C.J. Cherian. 1991. Protection of timber structures (18 m fender  piles) in Cochin harbour water by CCA and CFO.  J. Indian Acad. Wood   Sci., 22 (1): 37-43.

Service tests were conducted on jointed piles of 18 x 0.6 x 0.3 m size made from the heartwood portion of logs of Terminalia arjuna (arjun) after treatment with absorption levels of 32 kg/m3 CCA, 320 kg/m3 CFO and 16 kg/m3 CCA and 160 kg/m3 CFO (in double treatment).  Two piles were prepared for each treatment and the intertidal region of one pile each of the three categories was additionally protected with 20 mm iron nails (3 Nos. per   cm2).  Observations recorded over 5 years revealed that while the untreated control succumbed to 'absolutely heavy' attack by marine borers within 2 and ½ years and became unserviceable by 5 years, the treated piles except the CCA-CFO double treated one without nails sustained only 'nil' to 'moderate' borer attack in the same period and largely retained their serviceability

  • Rao, M.V., C.J. Cherian and P.V. Cheriyan. 1993. Further observations on the comparative efficacy of some indigenous methods for the protection of underwater timber structures.  Fish. Technol., 30 (1): 21-23.  

Results of long-term evaluation of several indigenous methods for protection of underwater timbers against wood boring organisms are reported in this paper.  While unprotected control poles were totally destroyed due to severe infestation by the wood borers within a period of 9 months, the poles covered with copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) / creosote fuel oil (CFO) treated coir rope lasted for 5 years.  The ones studded with iron nails gave a life of 16 years and those plastered with cement over CCA treated coir rope winding/scattered nailing interconnected with binding wire were in sound condition even afterwards.  Specific advantages offered by the methods in curtailing marine borer attack are also mentioned

  • Santhakumaran, L.N., K. Satyanarayana Rao and V.V. Srinivasan. 1993.  In search of non-polluting, environmentally acceptable protection  methods for marine timber structures.  J. Indian Acad. Wood Sci., 24     (2): 1-7.              

Deterioration of timber by biological agencies under marine conditions is a highly complex problem affecting diverse maritime operations.  In India, the additional expenditure incurred by the fishing industry alone for providing remedial measures against wood infesting organisms is a staggering figure of   over 400 million rupees. Of the different techniques employed to control biodeterioration, impregnation of wood by preservatives that contain biocidal chemicals is the most widely accepted method.  In this method, the toxicants are gradually released by the leaching action of sea water to provide control.  Inorganic compounds of heavy metals (copper, arsenic, zinc, etc.) have been the principal biocides used extensively in the 'wood preservatives' for many years.  More recently, the trend has been to use organo-metallic compounds (TBTO, etc.).  These chemicals, although very effective, are potentially important sources of contamination. In the current context of growing concern for maintenance of purity of aquatic systems, environmental compatibility is bound to play an increasingly restrictive role in the usage of wood preservatives especially in areas of high boating activity (ports, near shore environs, etc.) and in specialised situations like marine/brackish water fish-farms and sites near coastal industrial establishments.   In this paper, the possibilities for evolving non-polluting, environmentally acceptable protectants are examined in detail.  Emphasis is laid on control of the biological 'weak links' in the life cycles of the destructive organisms and usage of natural anti-biodeterioration compounds, occurring either in bio resistant woods or in marine organisms

  • Santhakumaran, L.N.  and V. V. Srinivasan. 1993.  Studies on the  natural bioresistance of some Indian timbers in Goa waters. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. India, 63 (B) III: 337-340.           

Natural durability of Diospyros ebenum, Chloroxylon swietenia, Eucalyptus tereticornis and marine plywood has been assessed and discussed, based on data collected by exposing test panels at Betim, near Panaji (Goa), continuously for periods ranging from 7 to 22 months.  Hevea brasiliensis, tested simultaneously, was taken as the reference species.  All the timber samples, except marine plywood, were heavily destroyed by shipworms and piddocks within 7 to 11 months.  Borer species observed were Martesia striata, Nausitora hedleyi and Lyrodus pedicellatus.  Marine plywood was only slightly damaged at the end of 18 months and suffered just 42% destruction in 2 months.  The damage in this case was exclusively due to the attack M. striata.  The nature of biodeterioration of the timbers tested has been discussed in relation to borer population of the area

  • Nagaveni, H.C., H.S. Ananthapadmanabha, G.Vijayalakshmi and S.S. Chauhan. (2001). Effect of chronic acid treatment on fungal deterioration of rubber wood. Wood News 11: 38-39.

Rubber wood (Hevea brasillensis) treated with different concentrations of aqueous solution of chromic acid (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10%) followed by heat treatment was assessed for its bio-resistance against brown rot and white rot fungi.  Though these treatments imparted considerable water repellency in the wood, the invasion of fungal hyphae could not be completely prevented.  These treatments have imparted very high resistance against white rot fungi even at the low treating solution concentration of 2.5%.  But, the highest concentration (10%) could not give equally significant resistance in case of brown rot fungi.  High effectiveness of these treatments against white rot fungi may be attributed to the formation of chronic acid-lignin water insoluble complex.

  • Nagaveni, H.C., O.K Remadevi, M.N. Sharma and R.V. Rao. (2002). Studies on  the durability of plantation grown Tecomella undulata (Sm) seem. T.D.A. 48 (1&2) :32-36.

Tecomella undulata is one of the important timber species, which plays an  important role in environmental conservation, and also act as a soil binder  in dry tracts.  Eight- year-old Tecomella undulata grown under a social forestry programme in Tamil Nadu has been evaluated for natural durability and it was found that heartwood is resistant to fungi as well as termites at this age.  Preservative treated panels also showed the same results. 

  • Remadevi, O.K., H.C. Nagaveni, Raja Muthukrishnan and M..Nagaraja Sharma.  (2002).  Evaluation of the efficacy of cashew nut shell liquid based products (CNSL) against.   T.D.A. 48 (1&2): 38-40.

Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), an herbal source of phenol, is being used in various industrial products including products including wood protecting formulations.  To evaluate the efficacy of CNSL based formulations against wood eating termites and fungi, experiments were conducted as per standard procedure using three commercial products.  While the untreated rubber stakes are fully damaged the percentage of protection against termites after 10 months of field exposure was 99.2, 99.1 71, 71.89 and 94.5 in the tuber stakes for more than 2 years.  While 50% was the weight loss by wood decay fungi controls the loss was only 20% and 10% respectively in the single and double coat treatment with CNSL preservatives.  The loss was only 5% in the CNSL products for wood protection against termites and fungi.

  • Nagaveni, H.C, H.S. Ananthapadnabha, G.Vijayalakshmi, M.N. Sharma and K.H. Shankaranarayana (1998). Protection of Rubber wood with steam volatile fraction of creosite.  Wood News, January- March 34-36.

Creosote is a renowned wood preservatives but has certain disadvantages like unpleasant odour and colour, unpaintability and bleeding from wood surface.  An effort has been made to obtain clean odourless preservative formulations from creosote by subjecting it to steam distillation (SVC).  Rubberwood treated with VC and tested for its efficacy against wood rotters gave encouraging results.  The otential use of SVC as an effective clean preservative has been discussed

  • Krishnan, R.V. (1993)Resistance of Copper-Chrome-Boric Composition (CCB) treated  timber to termite attack.. My Forest 29(1): 21-25.

Timber test-panels prepared from heartwood of Mangifera indica, on exposure to termite activity, were almost fully destroyed within a short span of 3 to 4 months. Test-panels of the same species treated with Copper-Chrome-Boric solution (3.4%) under air pressure of .51 kg/sq.cm. giving absorptions ranging from 14.21 kg/m3    to 21.59 kg/m3 effectively resisted termite attack during an experimental period of 66 months.  Compared to the destruction of untreated controls, the observations have shown that toxic effect of CCB treatment has enhanced the durability of the timber to several times.

  • Krishnan,35. R.V. and V.V. Srinivasan.  (1992) Resistance of  Copper-Chrome-Arsenic (CCA) and Copper-Chrome-Boric (CCB) treated timber to termite attack.. J. Ind. Acad. Wood Sci 23(2): 33-35.

Comparative efficacy of CCA and CCB preservatives of similar concentrations in controlling termite attack has been examined.  All the treated test timbers have lasted longer than untreated controls and the results further point out that at lower concentrations the efficacy of CCA is better than that of CCB.  At higher concentration the indication is that CCB performs better than CCA.

  • Krishnan, R.V., Venmalar D. (1991) Observations on the reduction of dichromates in  timber . Journal of Indian Acadmy of Wood Science 22, 2:41-43

Observations on the reduction of dichromates in timber. Reduction of discharges in 12 species of timbers has been examined with reference to their heartwood extractives.  Under similar experimental conditions the 12 species of timbers have recorded distinct variations in their reaction with dichromate solution.  There is correlation between the percentage of water soluble extractives and the percentage of dichromate reduction.

  • Krishnan, R.V., Venmalar, D, Nagaraja Sharma M. Further observations  on the reduction of dichromates in timbers (1995).  Journal of Indian Accademy of Wood Science 26 &27:  1 & 2: 27-29

Correlation between water soluble extractives and dichromate reduction noted in an earlier observation was further examined for five timber species.  Results  show that dichromate reduction in extractive free wood samples is always  greater.

  • Nagaveni, H.C. , D.Venmalar, K.H. Shankaranarayana and G.Ravkumar. (2003).  Improved creosote-SVC (steam volatile creosote) and its efficacy on biodegradation. Paper presented  in the national workshop on wood preservation in Indian challenges, opportunities and strategies  on 20th & 21st Oct. 2003

Creosote or coal tar creosote  is most successfully and commonly used preservative with certain disadvantages like obnoxious odour, unpleasant colour and unpaintability.  Creosote oil was steam distilled to get clean and less odorous steam volatile products (SVC). The yield was 30% and chemical composition was identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).  Acridine, 2-methyl naphthalene, acenaphthene and O-xylene were among the chemical constituents identified in the steam volatile creosote.  The efficacy of this steam volatile oil was investigated against wood rotters, mould and stain fungi and termites and this SVC  was found to be effective as natural creosote but with added advantages like improved  colour and lessened obnoxious odour.  These improved features of SVC may be attributed to the higher percentage of 2 methyl naphthalene (9.46). acenaphathene (39.48) and O-xylene (3.73) compare to the same constituents  of natural creosote 6,23,9 and 2.9 respectively.  An barring water in the form of steam.  Therefore the method of obtaining SVC is economical and equally effective as natural creosote with the advantages of improved colour, odour and clarity.

 

WOOD PRESERVATION

  • Ananthapadmanabha, H.S., and V.R. Sivaramakrishnan. (1992) In-situ pressure injection for preservation of Rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis. Muel Arg). IRG/ WP 3688-92.

Rubber wood is highly susceptible to sap stain, decay fungi and borers and prophylactic treatment is necessary for the wood within a short period of felling and transport to prevent the material loss. A simple in-situ method by pressure injection technique was adopted to treat the standing tree using equipment designed at the Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Bangalore

  • Anantha padmanabha, H.S., V.V. Srinivasan. (1993). Prevention of biodeterioration of rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis) using K-Otek. Wood news:  Oct-Dec 35-37

Rubber wood is semi-hard, lightweight with attractive colour and possesses beautiful straight grain pattern. A number of small-scale industries are using rubber wood as raw material for making doors, cabinet shutters and furniture in addition to packing cases. High susceptibility to attack of fungi, termites and borers limits its effective utilization. Rubber wood was treated with K-Otek, a proprietary product with active ingredient of "Delta methrin"- a photostable synthetic pyrethroid and exposed to fungi, termites and borer test as per Indian Standards. K-Otek has proved effective in giving adequate protection to rubber wood against biodeterioration and in maintaining natural colour and grain.

  • Nagaveni, H.C., H.S. Ananthapadmanabha, G.Vijayalakshmi, M.N. Sharma and K.H. Shankaranarayana. (1998). Protection of rubberwood with steam volatile fraction of creosote. Wood News, 7(4): 34-38.

Creosote is a renowned wood preservative but has certain disadvantage like  unpleasant  odour ad colour, unpaintability and bleeding from wood surface.  An effort has been made to obtain clean odourless preservative formulations from creosote by subjecting it to steam distillation (SVC).  Rubberwood treated with SVC and tested for its efficacy against wood rotters gave encouraging results.  The potential use of SVC as an effective clean preservative has been discussed.

  • Nagaraja Sharma, M.N., H.C. Nagaveni, H.S. Ananthapadmanabha(1998).  Protection of rubber wood by -wood guard, oil based preservative.  Proceedings of National Seminar on Plantation timbers and Bamboo,  IPIRITI, Bangalore.

Rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis ) has gained importance for its extensive use as timber, but its potential use has been hampered duet to its high susceptibility to fungi,   termites and borers, It has to be treated with suitable wood preservatives for its optimum utility. An attempt has been made to evaluate efficacy of commercially available oil based wood preservative (wood guard) against termite and fungi.  It was observed the treated wood has shown considerable resistance to decay fungi as well as termites.

  • Nagaveni, H.C, G.Vijayalakshmi and H.S. Ananthapadmanabha. (1999). Effect of weathering on rubberwood treated with deltamethrin- A synthetic pyrethroid compound (K-OTEK).  Wood news 8(4):8-9.

Rubber wood  (Hevea brasiliensis) treated with delta-methrin compound has given protection against wood destroying fungi, insect borers and also retained natural creamy colour.  Treated wood on exposure to Xenon arc irradiation up to 400 hours did not show any reduction in the retention of chemical.  Exposure to irradiation revealed that the chemical is also photo-stable.  The retention of chemical in wood was assessed by conducting the accelerated tests against decay fungi.

  • Satyanarayana Rao, K., S.N. Sharma, V. Kuppusamy and M. Balaji. (1990).  Treated  Bombax ceiba catamarans for field trials in Andhra Pradesh -  Part I.  J.  Indian Acad. Wood Sci., 21 (2): 47-58.

As a sequel to the pioneering and successful field trials treated catamarans of Albizia chinensis conducted at Visakhapatnam, a new series of investigations designated as "TREATKAT STUDIES" on preservative treatment and performance of catamarans have been initiated.  In these studies, special emphasis is being placed on catamarans made of cheaper, 'secondary species' and species that are not conventionally preferred by fishermen.  In the first phase, Bombax ceiba has been selected.  Three catamarans of this species treated with CCA have been recently handed over to fishermen beneficiaries for regular usage at Pedajalaripeta, Visakhapatnm as service-cum-demonstration trials.   In this paper, the rationale behind the choice of Bombax ceiba as a candidate species for use after preservative treatment and technical details concerning treatment (loadings, depth of penetration, concentration of components of preservative, etc.) are provided.  The experience gained in handling and treatment of thick and curved catamaran components is documented for the first time as it may be useful in future establishment of commercial processing units for treated catamarans for the welfare of small fishermen

  • Satyanarayana Rao, K., M. Balaji and V.V. Srinivasan. (1990).  Preservative treated catamarans: The need and scope of their introduction for the benefit of traditional fishermen. Proceedings of Second Indian Fisheries Forum (Eds) T.J. Varghese, P. Keshavanath, K.V. Radhakrishnan and R.R. Lokeshwar, Asian Fisheries Forum, Indian Branch, Mangalore: 333-336.         

Catamarans or 'log-rafts' constitute the most widely used traditional fishing craft on the east coast of India.  Over 73,000 units of catamarans, comprising approximately 54% of the total traditional fishing boats, are being used in the country.  They are entirely made of wood.  The soft wood used is prone to biological decay necessitating frequent replacements and repairs.  Long-term field studies have been conducted with catamarans pressure treated with Copper-Chrome-Arsenic (CCA) preservative. This paper highlights the immense benefits of usage of treated catamarans.  These include enhancement of service life, reduction in capital investments, widening of choice of species for usage, etc

  • Rao, M.V., C.J. Cherian and P.V. Cheriyan.  (1991).  Performance of 18 m fender piles protected by scupper nailing in Cochin harbour waters.  J.Timb. Dev. Assoc. (India), 37 (1): 33-37.       

Scupper nailing at three different ratings, i.e., 3/cm2, 2/cm2 and 1/cm2 was done on jointed fender piles made of Terminalia arjuna (Arjun).  The piles were tested in seawater, along with control pile.  Although there was profuse attack by fouling organisms, borer attack was limited to unprotected control pile.  Only Martesia attacked protected piles.  There was no attack of sphaeromatids and teredinids suggesting that rusted iron provided protection against these borer species

  • Rao, M.V., C.J. Cherian and P.V. Cheriyan. (1991).  Long-term performance of 12 species of Indian timbers treated with CCA in Cochin harbour.  Fish. Technol., 28 (2): 111-116.         

Performance of 12 common timbers (Alstonia kurzi, Bombax insigne, Albizia sp, Tetrameles nudiflora, Pinus roxburghii, Polyalthia fragrans, Shorea robusta, Terminalia paniculata, Pterocarpus dalbergioides, Dipterocarpus indicus, Tectona grandis and Xylia xylocarpa) treated with copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) at 16 kg/m3 (A1 series) and 32 kg/m3  (A2 series) absorptions and exposed in the Cochin harbour waters along with untreated ones is presented.  The results show that (1) CCA treatment has greatly enhanced the durability of all the 12 species, (2) T. nudiflora, P. roxburghii, D. indicus and T. grandis of A2 series suffered only 50% to 97% destruction at the end of 22 years, (3) performance of timbers in A2 series is superior to that in A1 series in most of the cases and (4) treated non-durable species like T. nudiflora and P. roxburghii exhibited better life or borer resistance than treated durable timbers such as P. dalbergioides, T. grandis and X. xylocarpa

  • Santhakumaran, L.N and R.V. Krishnan.  (1991). Resistance of six timber species, treated with CCA and CCB against marine borer attack in Goa waters (India).  The Internat. Res. Group on Wood Preserv., Stockholm, Document No. IRG/WP/4166: 1-14.       

Panels of Lagerstroemia speciosa, Toona ciliata, Olea dioica, Pinus insignis, Acrocarpus fraxinifolius and Borassus flabellifer, pressure treated with a 6.6% solution of Copper-Chrome-Arsenic (CCA) and 6.0% solution of Copper-Chrome-Boric (CCB), were exposed along with untreated controls, in triplicate, in Goa waters to assess their resistance to damage by marine borers.  The control panels were all completely destroyed within a short period of six months due to heavy infestation by borers, mainly Martesia striata (Linnaeus).  Few specimens of Lyrodus pedicellatus (Quatrafages), Nausitora hedleyi (Schepman), Bankia campanellata Moll and Roch, Bankia rochi Moll and Sphaeroma annandalei Stebbing were also noticed on some of the panels.  Treated panels of L. speciosa and T. ciliata indicated mild borer attack within six months and were heavily destroyed within 18 to 30 months.  However, some panels of P. insignis and B. flabellifer, treated with CCA and CCB and one of O. dioica treated with CCA, were comparatively in good condition with only mild attack even after exposure for 35 months.  Two of these panels suffered just 15% damage at the end of 51 months.  The results in general, indicate that (i) biodeterioration of timber is quite severe in Goa waters because of the predominance of M. striata; (ii) CCB is almost as effective as CCA in some species up to about 35 months; (iii) the same type of treatment or higher retention of preservative chemicals does not impart the same degree of protection to panels of different timber species; (iv) the effect of treatment with CCA and CCB varies in different timber species and (v) treatment with solution of the same concentration does not ensure uniform absorption by panels of the same timber species.

  • Rao, M.V. and V. Kuppusamy.  (1992). Leachability of creosote: fuel oil (1: 1)  wood preservative in marine environment.  J. Timb. Dev. Assoc. India,  38 (3): 42-45. 

Leachability of creosote: fuel oil (CFO) from 20 timber panels belonging to 5 different species exposed in Cochin harbour waters is discussed with regard to its variability from species to species and panel to panel within the same species.  The leaching rate of CFO from the panels ranged from 1.5% to 10.6% and in general the panels with lower leachability gave higher durability and vice versa

  • Santhakumaran, L.N and M.V. Rao. (1997).  Performance of preservative- treated rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) in Goa and Kochi waters (West Coast of India). The Internat. Res. Group on Wood Preserv., Stockholm Document No.  IRG/WP 97-20104: 1-5.

Performance of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) against biodeterioration, when pressure-treated with Copper-Chrome-Arsenic (CCA) and Copper-Chrome-Boric (CCB) and exposed in Mandovi estuary (Goa) and in Kochi waters for a period of 32 months and 9 months respectively, has been discussed.  The control panels were completely destroyed within a period of 4 to 6 months at both the localities.  The resistance offered oven by the treated panels was not encouraging, as infestation and damage to them were observed within 6 months of exposure.  Though treatment at higher levels of retention was more effective, even these panels underwent 15 to 23% internal destruction at Goa and 12 to 16% destruction at Kochi within 9 months.  Panels treated with both preservatives at lower and higher concentrations were rejected within 23 and 32 months, respectively at Goa.  Major borers present in the panels were Martesia striata, Nausitora hedleyi and Lyrodus pedicellatus. In general, there was no difference in the efficacy of CCA and CCB.  Although failure of CCA and CCB treated panels has been reported earlier from these test stations, the present results emphasise the need for further trials so as to arrive at any reliable conclusion on improvement of durability by preservative treatment.

  • Rao, M.V., V. Kuppusamy, K. Satyanarayana Rao and L.N. Santhakumaran. (2001). Leaching of CCA preservative from treated timber in marine environment. The Internat. Res. Group on Wood Presev. Stockholm, Document No. IRG/WP 01-30254: 1-20.

Knowledge on the amount of preservatives leaching out of treated wood is essential to optimise the chemical loading in various species of timber required for different end uses.  In order to gain more insight into this aspect, the residual CCA content in 40 treated timber panels belonging to 14 species removed on destruction by marine organisms from a series of durability tests conducted in Kochi waters (west coast, India) were estimated.  The data showed that CCA enhanced the durability of various timber species to different degrees.  In the case of panels treated to lower loading, the average annual leaching of CCA ranged from 0.36-2.81 kg.m-3 and that in specimens subjected to higher loading from 0.54-4.99 kg.m-3.  The leaching rate was found to be relatively slower in panels with higher loading than that with lower loading.  In general, the leaching rate of CCA was seen varying among panels of different species, panels with identical initial preservative content and even among various panels within a species.  The study thus suggests the requirement of in-depth field studies into the various aspects governing the leaching phenomenon of preservatives used under marine conditions to arrive at appropriate conclusions

  • Kuppusamy, V., M. Balaji, M.V. Rao and K. Satyanarayana Rao. (2002).  Leaching of CCA from Bombax ceiba catamarans in operation for 15 years.  The Internat. Res. Group on Wood Preserv. Stockholm,  Document No. IRG/WP 02-50191: 1-6

Core samples of wood at random were collected from all the timber pieces of each of the three catamarans made of CCA treated logs of Bombax ceiba put to continuous service for the last 15 years at the Lawson's Bay fishing village, Visakhapatnam.  The samples were dried to constant weight, powdered, digested and analyzed for the residual salts of the preservative. The residual content of CCA was found to be 6.90, 6.24 and 7.43 kg/m3 in CAT I, II and III, respectively. The values for individual components of arsenic, copper and chrome were 0.24 to 0.34 kg/m3, 3.34 to 4.37 kg/m3 and 2.66 to 3.03 kg/m3, respectively. Making use of the initial absorptions of the preservative determined at the time of treatment and the residual contents estimated now, the leaching rates of CCA and its components were calculated.  While the annual leaching rate of CCA was observed to be 1.22 kg/m3 (CAT I), 0.81 kg/m3 (CAT II) and 0.83 kg/m3 (CAT III), at elemental level, it was found to be 0.05, 0.04 and 0.05 kg/m3 in the case of arsenic, 0.15, 0.10 and 0.09 kg/m3 in the case of copper and 0.20, 0.12 and 0.14 kg/m3 in the case of chromium for CAT I, II and III, respectively.  The results thus indicate that while about 2/3rd the initial amount of CCA had been leached out of the catamarans during the last 15 years, still 1/3rd the amount is present in the logs.  Thus, the preservative left out in the catamarans appears to be sufficient to offer protection to the craft for a good number of years to come

  • Kuppusamy, V., M.V. Rao, M. Balaji and K. Satyanarayana Rao. (2002). Preservative absorption response of planks of Anogeissus acuminata for plank-built catamarans. The Internat. Res. Group on Wood Preserv.  Stockholm, Document No. IRG/WP 02 40245: 1-15.

Due to shortage of timber coupled with other compelling factors, traditional   fishermen along the east coast of India, especially of Andhra Pradesh, of late, are   departing from conventional log type wooden catamarans.  Instead, they are   fabricating catamarans out of timber planks of hard woods and utilizing   thermocol for buoyancy.  Mostly, locally available timber of a Combretaceae   species, Anogeissus acuminata (Yon) is used to fabricate these plank-built   catamarans.  Since these catamarans are also built with untreated timber, there is   every need to extend wood preservation technology to these craft also so as to achieve enhanced service life and conserve the resources.  Therefore, the nstitute of Wood Science and Technology took up treatment of timber meant for five such craft with copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA).    Thirteen different logs were procured and converted into planks and batons of suitable sizes, debarked, cleaned and air-dried under shade.  While the length of the planks ranged from 0.81 to 6.53 m, the width varied from 16 to 44 cm.  After sufficient seasoning, the material was pressure treated with 6% CCA by full cell method as per IS: 401 (1982).   Chemical retentions were computed from the weight gained by the individual planks and sets of 20 batons immediately after treatment.  The preservative absorption in the planks ranged from 13.05 to 69.80 kg/m3 averaging at 25.90 kg/m3 and that in the batons averaged at 32 kg/m3.   The quantity of CCA absorbed by the planks was analyzed with reference to their ength, width, thickness and volume.  Planks when categorized to different length and volume groups exhibited clear difference in the intake of chemical by them but when categorized into different width and thickness classes showed not much variation.   All the treated planks and batons after air-drying in shade for 15 days were fabricated into five catamarans.  Thus, though the planks of A. acuminata are either very long or very wide, they showed a positive response to CCA treatment by absorbing reasonably good quantities of preservative.  Similarly, on fabrication of the catamarans, an average retention of 21.79 to 25.43 kg/m3 of CCA per craft could be achieved.  These values fall into the recommended preservative absorption range of 16 to 32 kg/m3 (IS: 401, 1982) for marine structures

  • Kuppusamy, V., M.V. Rao, K. Satyanarayana Rao and M. Balaji. (2002).    Influence of ponding on the diffusion treatment of Bambusa bambos in green condition.  Wood News, 12 (1): 36-39.

Because of renewed interest on bamboos in recent years, studies on the effect of ponding on the diffusion treatment of an economically important species, namely, B. bambos in green condition using 6% acid-cupric-chromate preservative was taken up to exploit the practice of rafting bamboos through rivers.  The results indicate that higher preservative retentions could be achieved both in round and half-round bamboos by ponding.  The salt retentions attained by all the ponded specimens were found to conform to the standards for their use indoors, under cover and exposed to weather but not in contact with ground.  A treating solution of 8-10% strength is suggested to achieve absorptions recommended for use of  material for structures exposed to weather and in contact with ground

  • Balaji, M., M.V. Rao, V. Kuppusamy and K. Satyanarayana Rao.  (2003). Toxicity of CCA compound and its components to the larvae and adults of a wood boring teredinid, Lyrodus pedicellatus Quatrefages.  In: K. Satyanarayana Rao, S. Gairola and P. K. Aggarwal (ed.) Proc.National Workshop on Wood Preservation in India: Challenges, opportunities and strategies, Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Bangalore, 73-80.

Lyrodus pedicellatus Quatrefages, a teredinid wood borer, is one of the most virulent marine borers at Visakhapatnam outer harbour area.  In order to protect wooden structures from its attack among others, the structures are treated with wood preservatives, especially copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) composition.  Normally, a preservative loading of 32 kg.m-3 of CCA is recommended to protect timber under marine conditions in tropical Indian waters. To determine the optimum retentionof CCA required to prevent the attack of L. pedicellatus, experiments were conducted on the larvae of the species.  Test coupons of Pinus roxburghii treated to different CCA retentions were offered to the larvae for attack.  Recruitment of larvae was monitored continuously till they succeed.  Also, experiments were conducted on the toxicity of CCA compound and its components to adults of the species.  The activity of the organisms was recorded at 24 hour intervals, up to 96 hours.  The boring activity of the animals in controls as well as treated coupons was determined.  The results are discussed in the light of available literature.

  • Suresh Gairola, and Pankaj Aggarwal. (2005). Status of wood preservation in India.  The Indian Forester 131: 8:979-987.

Wood, despite the advent of other modern materials, continues to play an important role in mans day to day life.  Usage of wood ranges from fuel wood to engineered wood products and demand for it is increasing which has resulted in depletion of forests and diminishing wood supplies.  Future needs will mainly be required to be met from plantation timbers after adopting processing  technologies for their life enhancement.  Preservation treatment can reduce timber requirement because of enhancing wood service life that can help in managing forests on a sustainable basis to serve the dual purpose of providing a stable help in managing  forests on a sustainable basis to serve the dual purpose of providing a stable raw material supply and maintaining ecological balance.  India has given to the world two of the most effective  and widely used wood preservatives viz. CCA and CCB.  However, the present level of wood treatment in the country is very low with negligible contribution to the wood economy.  Different institutions have made  significant research contribution to the wood economy.  Different institutions have made significant research contributions and generated tremendous data on wood preservation but because of lack of general awareness and enabling legislative support, usage of wood preservation has not taken off in the country.  Compounding the problem is extremely weak industry user group research linkages.

  • Venmalar, D. Preservative treatment of green rattans-some preliminary investigations. (2003). Paper presented in the national workshop on wood preservation in  India   challenges, Opportunities and strategies. 20th  & 21st   Oct, 2003.

Post harvested Rattans are prone to fungal infection and insect attacks during storage period when the moisture content is very  high.  It is estimated that an average loss of 1-40% of the imported as well as locally procured raw material occurs  due to biodeterioration.  The feasibility of preservative treatment of green rattans by dipping and pressure processes with water borne preservative.  Copper Chrome Boron (CCB) composition was studied. The study indicated that the dry salt Retention (DSR) value obtained for 48 hrs.  dipping period is adequate and may be used as a prophylactic treatment as soon as the rattans are harvested at the felling site itself. In pressure process, the DSR value recommended by the Indian Standard specification for canes used for non structural purposes is 8 kg/m This could easily be achieved by rating rattans in green condition with a low concentration (3%) of CCB preservative, with a treatment schedule of 15 minutes-  initial vacuum of 56 cm of Hg for 5 minutes.  This treatment schedule saves much time and energy.  Pressure treatment of rattans in green conditions avoids the requirement of prophylactic treatment immediately after harvest and also prevents  from any fungal attack during drying material.

 

WOOD POLYMERS

  • Ajay Karmakar, Panakaj Aggarwal, Jayant Modak and Manas Chanda (2003) Rafting of m-Isopropenyl-a,a-dimethylbenzyl-isocyanate (m-TMI) onto Isotatactic Polypropylene: Synthesis and Characterization Journal of polymer materials  101-107.

A novel vinyl monomer with isocyanate functional group, m-Isopropenyl-a,a-dimethylbenzyl-isocyanate (m-TMI),  was grafted onto  isotactic polypropylene (i-PP)  using dicumyl peroxide (DCP)  as the initiator. This would open up the possibility of using the grafted polymer with the reactive isocyanate group as compatibilizer for blending carbohydrates such as cellulose with polypropylene. The grafting was carried out in a  Brabender Plasticoder at 1800C. The effect of monomer and initiator concentrations on the yield of grafting were investigated by performing statistical analysis.  While the grafting yield increased with the concentration of DCP at any given concentration of m-TMI, the variation of the grafting yield with m-TMI concentration, for a given concentration of DCP, went through a maximum, the optimum yield of 7.8% (w/w) being obtained at 10 wt.% concentration of both DCP and m-TMI. The grafting reaction is accompanied  by considerable chain scission of i-PP, resulting in a decrease in the molecular weight of the grafted polymer. While the molecular weight drops sharply even at a low concentration of DCP, there occurs no further significant change in the molecular weight even at much higher concentrations of the initiator

  • Chauhan, S.S, Ajay Karmakar, Pankaj Aggarwal. (2006). Evaluation of dynamic  elastic properties of wood filled polypropylene composites.  Journal of Applied polymer science 102:1706-1711.

Dynamic modulus of elasticity (MoE) and shear modulus of wood-filled polypropylene composite at various filler contents ranging from 10% to 50% was determined from the vibration frequencies of disc-shaped specimens. Wood filler was used in both fiber form (pulp) and powder form (wood flour). A novel compatibilizer, m-isopropenyl- a,a-dimethylbenzyl-isocyanate(m-TMI) grafted polypropylene with isocyanate functional group was used to prepare the composites. A linear increase in dynamic MoE, shear modulus, and density of the composite was observed with the increasing filler content. Between the two fillers, wood fiber filled composites exhibited slightly better properties. At 50% filler loading, dynamic MoE of the wood fiber filled composite was 97% higher than that of unfilled polypropylene. Halpin-Tsai model equation was used to describe the changes in the composite modulus with the increasing filler content. The continuous improvement in elastic properties of the composites with the increasing wood filler is attributed to the effective reinforcement of low-modulus polypropylene matrix with the high-modulus wood filler.

 

GROWTH STRESSES

  • Pankaj K. Aggarwal, Ajay Karmakar, S.S. Chauhan & A.K. Ananthanarayana (2003) A rapid and non destructive technique for stimating growth strains in trees and logs. IWST Technical Bulletin. 2.

Technique described here is a rapid tool for investigating growth strain level present in logs and trees.  It has been successfully demonstrated in trees and logs of Eucalyptus tereticornis and in logs of Acacia auriculaeformis.  This technique enables investigation of strain under various situations.  For instance, in any locality, highly stressed logs may be subjected to various treatments to reduce their stress level and amount of change measured.  Living trees may be sampled and low stress individuals selected for propagation trials.  Also, any tree may be easily examined for the distribution pattern and magnitude of growth strains, which can help in proper utilization of timber.

  • Pankaj K.Aggarwal, Ajay Karmakar and S.S. Chauhan. (2003). Measurement of growth stresses in south Indian plantation grown species using improved strain gauge technique. Proceeding National Seminar on "Plantation Timber and Bamboos" 23rd and 24th July 1998, 267-273, IPIRTI, Bangalore

Growth stress is a common phenomenon found in each stem and in each  branch of trees. They have their origin in growing wood cells. Which tend to contract in fibre direction and to expand transerversely against restraining forces of adjoining older wood cells. Presence of high magnitude of growth stress in plantation-grown timber causes significant problems in the conversion of felled trees to lumber.  The loss due to these problems can be minimized if a prior information on the pattern and magnitude of growth stress present in trees or logs is available.  For this a rapid simple, inexpensive and non-destructive method of measurement of growth stresses is required. The techniques available for measurement of growth stress, though, can provide accurate value for growth stress, most of them are not particularly satisfactory with respect to speed and ease of measurement. Some are destructive in nature.  Institute of Wood Science and Technology.  Bangalore has modified strain gauge technique to measure growth stress in trees and timber.  Using this technique, growth stress pattern in trees and Logs of some of the species were studied, results of which are presented in this paper.

  • Pankaj K. Aggarwal, S.S. Chauhan, Ajay Karmakar and Ananthanarayana( 1997)  Measurement of longitudinal growth strains in eucalyptus tereticornis by strain gauge technique.  Wood News Journal Oct-Dec.

Distribution pattern of growth stresses was determined in logs of Eucalyptus tereticornis using strain gauge technique.  Longitudinal growth strains were found varying not only along the circumference but also with the height.  Average strain in the tree was observed to be 565 microstrain.  A reduction of about 50% intensity of growth stresses was observed by steaming the logs for a period of six hours.

  • Aggarwal, P.K, S.S. Chauhan & A. Karmakar(2002). Variation in growth strain,volumetric shrinkage and modulus of elasticity and their inter-relationships in Acacia auriculaeformis . Journal of Tropical Forest Products 8(2): 135-142

Longitudinal growth stain, volumetric shrinkage, modulus of elasticity (MOE) and longitudinal growth stresses were determined at four heights in five straight logs of Acacia auriculaeformis.  The mean value of all these parameters increased up to 3 m height and   then decreased. Variation in these properties within tree and between trees was analysed using ANOVA technique.  A statistical significant variation with height was observed in all the properties.  However, only MOE and stress exhibited significant variation between trees at the 99% confidence level.  Correlation analysis indicated strong positive relationship between strain and volumetric shrinkage as well as between strain and MOE.  The mean value for growth strain was 285-μ strains which was quite low compared toother plantation timbers.

  • Aggarwal P.K, S.S. Chauhan, A. Karmakar & A. K. Ananthanarayana (1998). Distribution of growth stresses in logs of Acacia auriculiformis.Journal  of Tropical Forest Products 4 (1): 87-89.

Magnitude and distribution of growth stresses in 10 logs of A. auriculiformis extracted from a 20-y-old plantation maintained by the Karnataka Forest Department is reported in this paper. An increasing trend in longitudinal growth stress was observed up to a height of 3m followed by a sudden decrease. The high values of growth stress detected at about 3m in straight and crooked logs might affect optimum utilization. Interestingly, the magnitude of LGS in crooked logs was 1.5 to 1.8 times more than that of straight logs at all the corresponding heights. This may be attributed to imbalance of forces developed in reorienting trees during their growth.

  • Pankaj K. Aggarwal, S.S. Chauhan And Ajay Karmakar . (2002) Reduction of growth stress in logs of Acacia auriculaeformis by heat treatment. Wood News 12(2):36-39

The reduction in longitudinal growth strain in logs of Acaicia auriculaeformis by heating was investigated.  Logs with and without bituminous end coating were heat treated at 90oC for 9 hrs. The strain in untreated control logs was 1.5 to 2.3 times of the heat treated logs.  Checking in heated logs with end coating was less than in logs without end coating.  Reduction in specific gravity after heat treatment was not appreciable.  It is suggested that end coated logs with heat treatment may be utilized as timber for commercial applications. 

  •  Pankaj K. Aggarwal, S.S. Chauhan and Ajay Karmakar,  Growth stress in plantation grown timbers and its relevance to wood utilization. Proceedings Workshop on Forestry Research in conservation of Natural Forests. Ed Negi et .al. ICFRE Dehradun,:265-269; 25-26 April 1997

Paucity of timber from natural forests and its increased availability from plantations calls for rational utilization of plantation grown timber.  Timber from plantations have severe processing problems due to presence of high growth stresses and cause a concern in their appropriate utilization.  These inherent stresses are generated during their growth.  A precise information in distribution and magnitude of growth stresses may help in adopting appropriate silvicultural operations to get good quality timbers from plantations, deciding proper processing techniques and suggesting appropriate end use of these timbers.  This in turn will help in utilizing plantation grown timbers rationally.  In this paper development of growth stresses in trees, stress measurement techniques and adverse effects of growth stresses on timber have been discussed

  • Rawat, S.P.S,  M.C. Breese and D.P.Khali (1998). Chemical kinetics of stress relaxation of compressed wood blocks. Wood Science and Technology  32: 95-99

Methods of chemical kinetics are used to study stress relaxation behaviour of wood blocks made from Pinus sylvestris and compressed parallel to grain at 20°C and 65% relative humidity. The effect of stress levels on stress behaviour is investigated. It is found that both activation volume and activation energy decrease with increasing stress level. The results prove the validity of the chemical kinetics approach in describing stress relaxation of wood blocks in compression. Suggestive explanations are given for the variations in activation energy and activation volume with stress level.

  • Shakti S. Chauhan and John Walker, Relationships between longitudinal growth strain and some wood properties in Eucalyptus nitens, Australian Forestry,  67(4): 254-260

The relationships between longitudinal growth strain and wood properties of Eucalyptus nitens were investigated. Sixty-three 10- y-old trees were selected for this study. Longitudinal growth strain, green density, green moisture content, basic density, radial shrinkage, outer-wood and core-wood densities, volumetric shrinkage and dynamic modulus of elasticity (MoE) at 12% moisture content and length-weighted fibre length were determined. Amongst all the studied wood properties, only shrinkage-related properties were found to have some association with the mean growth strain in trees. The mean growth strain was moderately but significantly related to the volumetric shrinkage of the outer-wood, but not to the shrinkage of the core-wood. However, the volumetric shrinkage differential (difference between outer-wood and core-wood shrinkage ) was strongly related to the growth strain (r = 0.70), suggesting that the growth stress gradient might be related to variations in shrinkage properties within the stem. The wood of trees with the lowest growth strains had statistically significantly lower volumetric shrinkage, lower outer-wood MoE and less collapse than wood of trees with the highest growth strains. The results suggest that E. nitens trees with low strains could exhibit a lower degree of drying defects such as collapse and checking during processing.

 

WOOD WATER RELATIONSHIP

  • Pankaj K. Aggarwal, S.S. Chuhan, N.R.R. Prasad & K.S.Rao (2003). Water  repellent treatements for catamaran grade Bombax ceiba Linn. (Spermatophyta Dicotyledoneae) wood. Indian Journal of marine science, 32(4), 340-343.

Water repellency effectiveness (WRE) of four chemical formulations, namely polymeric methylene diisocyanate (PMDI) cashew nut shell oil (CSNL),varnish and chromium trioxide, was assessed on Cooper-Chrome-Arsenic (CCA) treated Bombax ceiba wood. Fifteen cycles of repeated wetting and drying were performed on water repellent coated and untreated wood. Water repellency was very high in the first cycle and then declined in all the coating system in subsequent cycles. After 10th cycle WRE became constant for all the systems. PMDI exhibited highest water repellency followed by chromium trioxide, CSNL and varnish. With the application of water repellent formulations, water uptake can be reduced considerably, which will maintain buoyancy of wood. The water repellents apart from reducing water holding capacity also reduces leaching of preservatives from the structures, which resulted in enhancing the durability of wood.

  • Chauhan, S.S., P.K. Aggarwal, A. Karmakar, A. K. Ananthanarayana  (1997). Water repellency in treated Hevea brasiliensis and  Mangifera indica wood. Holz als Roh.und Werkstoff 55, 203-205.

Samples of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) and mango (Mangifera indica) wood treated with 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% aqueous solution of chromic acid were assessed for water repellency and dimensional stability. Significant reduction in water absorption in treated samples was observed in initial five hours of soaking in water compared to untreated controls. It was found that effectiveness of water repellency was independent of concentration of solution under repeated cycles of wetting and drying. Degree of water repellency that could be achieved by chromic acid treatment appears to be dependent on constituents of wood. 

  • Rawat, P.S., D.P Khali, (1996) Enthaply-Entropy compensation during sorption of water in wood  Journal of Applied Polymer Science 60: 787-790.

Changes in free energy, enthalpy, and entropy were determined for sorption (desorption and adsorption) of water in wood. Findings were that changes are different for desorption and adsorption, have a strong dependence on moisture content, and have a weak dependence on temperature. Suggestive explanations are given for variation of energy changes during sorption with moisture content and temperature, and the differences in their values for desorption and adsorption are discussed. Studies on enthalpy-entropy compensation effect were made and a linear relationship is found to exist between enthalpy and entropy for both desorption and adsorption of water in wood.

  • Khali, D.P, S.P.S. Rawat. (2000) Clustering of water molecules during adsorption of water in brown rot decayed and undecayed wood blocks  of  Pinus sylvestris Holz als Roh und Werkstoff  58: 340-341.

Clustering behaviour of water molecules during adsorption of water in Brown rot decayed and undecayed wood blocks of Pinus sylvestris was studied. The average cluster size of water molecules was determined with the help of wood adsorption isotherm at 20 °C. The effect of relative humidity on cluster size was studied. Average cluster size progressively increases with an increase in relative humidity. It has been found that, while cluster size is greater in undecayed wood blocks at humidities from 15% to 76%,this situation got reversed at humidities greater than 76% and cluster size became increased in decayed wood blocks..

  • Rawat, S.P.S, Khali, D.P., (1999) Studies on adsorption behaviour of  water  vapour in lignin using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller theory. Holz. als Roh und werkstoff 57:203-204.

The adsorption of water vapour in lignin from Eucalyptus regnans was studied. The adsorption isotherm was evaluated on the basis of the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) theory. Analysis of adsorption data in terms of primary and secondary water were carried out. A good agreement between experimentally obtained adsorption isotherms with those obtained using the BET theory, validating the use of the same in the elucidation of adsorption mechanism.

  • Rawat, S.P.S, Khali, D.P, (1997), Clustering of water molecules during adsorption of water in wood. Journal of polymer science: 36: 665-671

Clustering behavior of water molecules during adsorption of water in wood was studied using the Zimm-Lundberg theory. The average cluster size of water molecules was determined with the help of wood adsorption isotherms at five temperatures. The effects of both relative humidity and temperature on average cluster size were studied. Average cluster size progressively increased with an increase in humidity. At humidities corresponding to fiber saturation, larger clusters were formed. Cluster size increased sharply with an increase in temperature at humidities close to saturation. Formation of large clusters at high temperature and humidities close to saturation is attributed to increased fraction of weakly bonded water and capillary condensation in such conditions. A description of adsorption of water in wood was provided in terms of average cluster size.

 
  • Rawat, S.P.S, Khali, D.P, (1998). Studies on adsorption behaviour of water vapours in lignin using flory-huggins theory. Journal of Timber Development Association of India, 50:18-24.

The adsorption of water vapour in lignin from Eucalyptus  regnans has been studied using flory-huggins theory. Flory-huggins interaction parameter (c) was calculated. It ranged from 0.19 to 1.23 and reaches a nearly constant value of about 1.23. X was found to be small in the low pressure region and got saturated at 1.23 at 96% of humidity. The increasing trend of X can be interpreted in terms of decrease of contribution of strongly bound water and increase of contribution of weekly bound water. It was found that flory-Huggins theory is most applicable in the high humidity regions.

 
  • Khali, D.P, S.P.S. Rawat ( 1998). Modelling the kinetics of moisture adsorption by wood. Journal of Timber Development Association of India. 49: 3 & 4 :30-33

A mathematical model based on numerical method with finite difference is able to describe the process of adsorption by calculating the kinetics of transfer as well as the profiles of moisture contents developed through the cross section of the wood as a function of time with various humidities.

 
  •  S.P.S. Rawat ,Khali, D.P., (1997). Clustreting of water molecules during adsorption of water in wood  Journal of Polymer science: 36:665-671

Clustering behaviour of water molecules during adsorption of water in holocellulose from Eucalyptus regnans was studied using Zimm-Lundberg theory. The effects of relative humidity on average cluster size and of moisture content on number of clusters were investigated. Average cluster size continuously increased with an increase in relative humidity. At  humidities closer to fiber saturation, larger clusters were formed. It was observed that at moisture contents near fiber saturation, number of clusters decreased.

 
  • S.P.S. Rawat , Khali, D.P.,  (1988) . Studies on the moisture adsorption behavior of chemically modified wood using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller Theory. Holzforschung 52:5

In the present work BET theory has been used to study the adsorption behavior of chemically modified wood. It has been found that there is a good agreement between experimentally obtained isotherms and those obtained using BET theory. This validates the use of BET theory in elucidating the adsorption mechanism. Our results suggest that cross linking has occurred maximum in case of FA and minimum in case of DDEU . The features of the chemical reaction between wood and formuladehyde (FA), glyoxal (Gly), glutaraldehyde (Glu) and dimenthylol diphydroxy ethyleneurea (DDEu) were investigated by analyzing moisture adsorption behavior of modified wood by these chemicals. BET theory was applied to the moisture adsorption data. Adsorpted water was separated into primary and secondary water.  Comparative studies of the moisture adsorption behavior of untreated and chemically modified wood specimens were made.  A good agreement between experimentally obtained adsorption isotherms with those obtained using Brunauer- Emmett-Teller theory, validating the use of BET theory in the elucidation of adsorption isotherms with those obtained using Brunauer -Emmett-Teller theory, validating the use of BET theory in the elucidation of adsorption mechanism for chemically modified wood.

 
  •  Khali, D.P.97.Khali, D.P.,S.P.S.Rawat (2003) Enthalpy-entropy compensation  during adsorption of water in chemically modified wood Journal of Timber Development Association of India 49: 1-2:58-62

Changes in free energy, enthalpy and entropy were determined for adsorption of water in chemically modified wood. Studies on enthalpy-entropy compensation effect were made and a linear relationship is found to exist between enthalpy and entropy for adsorption of water in wood.  The phenomenon can be  related to the swelling of wood.  A different viewpoint of phenomenon of enthalpy-entropy compensation is given which is in accordance with Le Chateliers principle.  Hence enthalpy entropy compensation can be regarded as a manifestation of Le Chateller's principle, which is due to conservation of energy.

 
  • Rawat,S.P.S and D.P. Khali. (2006). Clustering of water molecules during adsorption of water vapours in Grevelia robusta (Silver Oak).  Journal of Timber Development Association of India. 51: 1 & 2. 

Cluster theory is used to describe  the adsorption of water vapours in silver oak. It is found that at low humidities  water molecules are randomly adsorbed, as relative humidity increases they form small clusters, and finally larger clusters are formed at humidities corresponding to fiber saturation.

 
  • Khali, D.P, and S.P. S Rawat. (2006). Clustering of water molecules during adsorption of water in holocellulose. Journal of Timber Development of Association of India.50:1 &2: 33-36.

Clustering behaviour of water molecules during adsorption of water in holocellulose from Eucalyptus regnans was studied using Zimm-Lundberg theory. The effects of relative humidity on average cluster size and of moisture content on number of clusters were investigated.  Average cluster size continuously increased with an increase in relative humidity.  At humidities closer to fiber saturation, larger clusters were formed.  It was observed that at moisture contents near fiber saturation, number of clusters decreased.

 
  • Tirakanandha  B., Pankaj Aggarwal and K. Satyanarayana Rao. (2004). Influence of water repellents on the performance of CCA treated wood in a tropical marineenvironment. Paper presented in 3rd International symposium on surfacing and finishing of wood. Kyoto.

Influence on six water repellents, namely, chromium trioxide, Diisocyanate, commercial grade varnish, synthetic enamel paint, water based acrylic paint and an indigenous plant product cashew nut shell oil (CNSL) on Bombax ceiba panels treated with Copper Chrome arsenic (CCA) was assessed in a tropical marine environment at Krishnapatnam (130 28' N and 80o 10' E) waters on the east coast of India.  While control panels were severely destroyed within a short period of 12 months, the panels coated with all the six water repellents lasted longer  Among the panels treated with water repellents,  those with CNSL coating showed least resistance followed by water based acrylic pant and commercial grade varnish. On the other hand, panels with Chromium trioxide, Diisocynate and synthetic enamel paint coatings showed better performance. The wood borers which brought destruction to test panels were Martesia striata, M.nairi, Lyrodus pedicellatus, Teredo furcifera, T. Parksi, T. fulleri and Bankia companellata.  The extent of fouling also varied on panels with different treatments.

 

ENTOMOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY

  • Ananthapadmanabha, H.S, H.C. Nagaveni and V.V. Srinivasan (1990). Differential natural decay resistance of Hevea Brasiliensis  (Rubber Wood). Rubber bulletin 25 (4): 20-21.

Hevea Brasiliensis (Rubber Wood) has assumed importance as a raw material for industrial and low cost furniture. But wood is highly susceptible to wood rotters and molds. Study was taken to understand durability pattern of rubber wood against different molds and decay fungi under laboratory conditions. Rubber wood has the least natural resistance against fungi and decay pattern varies with different fungi. Weight loss showed that inner wood is more susceptible than outer wood and decay pattern showed a gradual increase from periphery to pith.

 
  • Anantha padmanabha, H.S., and H.C.Nagaveni. (1991). Natural resistance of subabul wood (Leucaena luecocephala) against white and brown rot. My Forest 27(1): 25-26.

Leucaena luecocephala (subabul) is a fast growing tree used for fuel and low cost timber. Natural resistance against decay fungi was studied as per IS 4873- 1968. As per the test, wood can be classified under moderately resistant class (Class II) and treatment of wood is necessary, if it is used in water prone area.

 
  • H.C. Nagaveni, & H.S. Ananthapadmanabha. (1991). Natural durability of Acacia auriculiformis against brown and white rot. Journal of Indian Academy of Wood Science: 22: 1. 35-36.

The decay resistance of Acacia auriculaeformis against brown and white rot fungus has been reported. The accelerated laboratory tests revealed that the weight loss of wood was found to be around 10 percent.  The wood can classified as highly resistant (Class I)).

 
  • Anantha Padmanabha, H.S., H.C. Nagaveni, and V.V. Srinivasan. (1992). Control of wood biodeterioration by fungal metabolites. IRG/ WP/1527-92.

An attempt was made to use fungal metabolites against wood decay fungi .as bio- preservatives. Fungal culture filtrates (FCF) of Trichoderma viridae, Sporotrichum pulverulentum, Chaetomium globosum and Pencillium spinolosum were extracted with kerosene. Rubber and Mango wood were treated with these extracts and tested against wood rotters under both lab and field condition. Result indicates that the FCF has tremendous potential to suppress fungal activity on wood. FCF showed both specific as well as broad-spectrum anti-microbial activities.

 
  • Sindhu Veerendra, H.C., H.S. Anantha padmanabha. (1996). Precursors of decay of wood of Mangifera Indica A. Juss. The Indian Forester: 122: 8: 770-772.

A wide variety of microorganisms are responsible for decaying process of wood. Decaying process is a complex phenomenon, which involves different organisms, which makes diverse contributions to the process. Mangifera indica stakes were exposed in test yard. Microorganisms were isolated; colonies were counted periodically from stakes. It is observed that bacteria invade wood as primarily colonizers and multiply very fast up to 15 days, followed by molds like Mucor and Rhizopus, and different species of Aspergillus and Pencillium after 16 days of ground contact. Stainers colonise the wood more or less on the same period as primary molds appear. The appearance and developmental phase of molds and stainers did not have any effect on bacteria suggesting the possible coexistence due to their small size and divergent niches. Activities of earlier colonisers precondition the wood for the entry of decay fungi such as soft rot, followed by cellulolytic fungi, which ultimately results in decomposition of wood.

 
  • Terry, L., Highley, H.S. Anantha Padmanabha. (1996). Antagonistic properties of Gliocladium virens against wood attacking fungi.  IRG/WP/96

Gliocladium virens has shown antagonism against fungi in agar medium and in wood blocks. Gliotoxin produced by G. virens is associated with biocontrol of some plant diseases, but its importance to biocontrol of wood attacking fungi is unknown.  We investigated the ability of gliotoxin-producing (GLT+) isolates of G. virens and gliotoxin-deficient (GLT-) mutants of G. virens to inhibit growth of wood attacking fungi in agar medium and to prevent decay in wood.  The brown-rot fungi Postia placenta and Neolentinus lepideus and the white rot fungi Trametes versicolor and Phlebia brevispora were completely inhibited by the GLT+ isolate and the GLT- mutants in agar medium.  The GLT+ isolate also completely inhibited the growth of the brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum and the white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus, but the GLT- mutants caused lesser inhibition.  The GLT+ isolate and GLT- mutants were ineffective in preventing growth of mold and stain fungi in dual agar culture.  Pretreatment of wood blocks with the GLT+ isolate or GLT-mutant prevented decay by P. placenta.  Likewise, the GLT+ isolate prevented decay by I. Lacteus but the GLT- mutants did not.  G. virens (GL-21) was grown on a sulfur-containing medium at pH 3.5 to enhance antibiotic production.  However, inhibition of growth of decay fungi on agar medium containing culture filtrates was not enhanced.  Decay was reduced in blocks treated with the culture filtrates but was not completely stopped.  The filtrates were also ineffective in preventing growth of mold and stain fungi on wood

 
  • Terry, L., Highley, H.S. Anantha padmanabha, C.R. Howell (1997).  Control of wood decay by Trichoderma (Gliocladium) Virens II. Antibiosis. Material und organismen 31Bd.Heft 3:157-166.

Trichoderma (Gliocladium) virens has shown good antagonism against decay fungi in agar medium in wood blocks. Gliotoxin produced by T. virens is associated with biocontrol of some plant diseases, but its importance to biocontrol of wood attacking fungi is unknown.  We investigated the ability of gliotoxin-producing (GLT+) isolates of T. virens and gliotoxin-deficient (GLT-) mutants of T. virens to inhibit growth of wood attacking fungi in agar medium and to prevent decay in wood.  The brown-rot fungi Postia placenta  and Neolentinus lepideus and the white rot fungi Trametes versicolor and Phlebia brevispora were completely inhibited by the GLT+ isolate and the GLT- mutants in agar medium. The GLT+ isolate also completely inhibited the growth of the brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum and the white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus, but the GLT- mutants caused lesser inhibition.  The GLT+ isolate and GLT- mutants were ineffective in preventing growth of mold fungi, but both inhibited stain fungi in dual agar culture.  Pretreatment of wood blocks with the GLT+ isolate or GLT-mutant prevented decay by the brown rot fungi. Although the GLT+ isolate prevented decay by the white-rot fungi, the GLT- mutants did not. G. virens (GL-21) was grown on a sulfur-containing medium at pH 3.5 to enhance antibiotic production in culture filtrates.  However, inhibition of growth of decay fungi on agar medium containing culture filtrates was not enhanced.  Decay was reduced in blocks treated with the culture filtrates but was not completely stopped.  The filtrates were also ineffective in preventing growth of mold and stain fungi on wood.

 
  • Ananthapadmanabha, H.S., H.C. Nagaveni. (1997). Evaluation of rubber wood Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL) for durability against wood rotting fungi.(1997). Wood news 6(4): 33-34.

Laminated Veneer Lumbar (LVL) made from rubber wood veneer bonded together with BWP phenol formaldehyde synthetic resin adhesive and grains of all the veneer assembled parallel to each other to reconstitute as wood was received by M/s. Indian woods Mouldings Pvt. Ltd. was tested for durability against decay fungi as per IS 4873- 1968. In first few days of exposure to fungi, degradation started in virulence, but slowed down at the later stages. Degradation of wood did not keep pace with the virulence of fungal growth and laminate remained as a solid block showing greater resistance. The result suggests that the surface of LVL may be treated further to get complete protection against decay organisms.

 
  • Nagaveni, H.C. G.Vijayalakshmi, D.Annapurna and H.S. Anantha admanabha.(1998) Association of Sandal with Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza. (VAM) fungi. Sandal and its productsACIAR Proceedings.No.84:155-158.

Santalum album, L. is a root parasite, the many primary and secondary host plants of which have been studied in detail. During our survey it was observed that the root region of sandal had more nitrogen-fixing bacteria and VAM fungi than those of certain hosts, despite its parasitic habit.  However, addition of VAM to the rhizosphere of both sandal and host boosted growth and biomass, especially in the root system. The VAM association and its effect on growth have been detailed in the paper.

 
  • Nagaveni, H.C., H.S. Ananthapadmanabha, Archana singh, and D.N. Chodankar. (1997).  Prospects for afforestation in mine dumps using VAM fungi. My Forest 33(2): 465-468. 

Mycorrhizal technology has assumed greater relevance in forest production especially in degraded soil.  The same technology can be extended to mine reject soil where phosphorous availability is a limitation to plants due to the presence of iron in soil.  Inoculation of Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (VAM fungi) to Acacia auriculiformis has shown increased growth potential and many stabilize soil for vegetation succession. VAM inoculum helps the tree to survive better and has definite potential for achieving better growth of plants in mine dump soil.

 
  • Nagaveni, H.C, H.S. Ananthapadmanabha, G.Vijayalakshmi and P.V. Somashekar. (1998). Comparative effect of inorganic fertilizer and VAM fungi on growth of teak plants. My Forest 34(1): 697-700. 

In tropical country like India, there is a problem of Nitrogen deficiency and phosphorous non-availaibility especially in degraded or stress areas.  Fertilization of soil in forestry on a regular basis is not possible because of economic consideration and therefore, VAM (Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza) is used as biofertilizer as a substitute for inorganic fertilizer.  The relative effect of inorganic fertilizer VAM inoculation to teak plants in agro forestry condition has been discussed in the paper and the results are encouraging.

 
  • Nagaveni, H.C., G.Vijalakshmi and H.S. Ananthapadmanabha.(1999).The role of vesicular arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM) on the growth of Grevillea Robsta (Silver Oak). My Forest 35(1) 81-87

Survey revealed that the mycotrophic symbiotic relationship exists between silver oak (Grevillea Robsta) and Vam fungi, however, their association and frequency distribution is too low. Inoculation of adequate quantity of specific VAM spores to the seedlings at the right stage of growth has shown improved growth.  It is inferred that silver oak and VAM responsiveness is of facultative nature. Inoculum containing Glomus mossae and G. calendonicum species and composite spores had pronounced effect on growth, biomass and survival percentage of silver oak plants compared to the inoculums of individual spores of G.fasciculatum and G. aggregatum.

 
  • Nagaveni, H.C. and G.Vijayalakshmi. (2002). Effect of VAM and Azotobacter inoculation on growth and biomass production in forestry species.  Indian  journal of forestry. 25(3): 286-290.

Seedlings of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Wrightia tinctoria and Bombax ceiba were inoculated with Azotobacter chroococcum and VAM fungi singly as well as in combination in root trainer under nursery conditions.  All treated seedlings exhibited improved growth and biomass.  But, better response was observed in both VAM alone and VAM+ Azotobacter treatment and least response was observed in Azotobacter alone treatment.  It can be concluded that microbial inoculation to tree species was found to improve productivity and this has to be practiced as integrated nursery management for quality seedling production and successful forest regeneration.

 
  • K. K. Pandey and A. J. Pitman. (2004).  Examination of the lignin content in a softwood and a hardwood decayed by a brown-rot fungus with the acetyl bromide method and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Journal of Polymer Science: Part A: Polymer Chemistry, Vol. 42, 2340-2346.

FTIR spectroscopy was used to examine lignin modification in Pinus sylvestris L. (Scots pine) and Fagus sylvatica L. (beech) decayed to different weight losses by the brown-rot fungus Coniophora puteana.  Samples of different weight losses, ranging from 3 to 64% for beech and 15 to 62% for pine, were analysed along with undecayed controls.  The ratios of the heights of the lignin / carbohydrate FTIR peaks were determined, and the lignin contents of the blocks were measured with the acetyl bromide method.  The ratios of the reference peaks for lignin against polysaccharide (i.e., cellulose and hemicellulose) peaks were compared with the lignin content of the wood determined by the acetyl bromide method.  A good correlation was obtained for ratios of some of the lignin/carbohydrate reference peaks (lignin peak at 1505 and 1330 cm-1 for beech and at 1511 and 1225 cm-1 for pine against polysaccharide peaks at 1734, 1375 and 1158 cm-1) against the lignin content for both wood species decayed to different levels.

 
  • P. Oevering, A. J. Pitman and K. K. Pandey. (2003).  Wood digestion in Pselactus spadix Herbest- a Weevil attacking Marine timber structures Biofouling, 19:   249-254.

Pselactus spadix tunnels timber structures in the marine environment.  Recent studies reported a cosmopolitan distribution for this weevil, which is frequently found in harbour and port areas.  P. spadix feeds on timber (hardwood and softwood) in immature and adult life stages, but its digestion of wood components had not been investigated.  Using dry weight analyses  of tunnel walls and frass produced, P.spadix adults consumed scots pine with soft rot decay at a rate of 1.59 ± 0.37 mgd-1 and the digestibility of this substrate was 57.96 ± 0.37 mg d-1 and the digestibility of this substrate was 57.96 ± 5.89 (i.e, for 100 mg consumed SR-pine, 58 mg was digested).  Using gravimetric analysis to quantify structural  wood components in tunnel walls and frass, p. spadix adults were found to digest cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose with digestibility coefficients of 82.2, 41.2 and 14.5 respectively.  Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analyses of tunnel walls and frass of adults and larvae from soft rotted pine also indicated digestion of all structural components, with larvae digesting cellulose and lignin more efficiently than adults. When FTIR was employed to analyze adult tunnel walls and frass from undecayed pine,  cellulose and hemicellulose were digested, but no evidence of lignin digestion was found.  This study shows that adults digest lignin when soft rot is present and suggests a symbiotic function of wood degrading microorganisms.

 
  • K. K. Pandey and A. J. Pitman. (2003). FTIR studies of the changes in wood chemistry following decay by brown-rot and white-rot fungi. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, Vol. 52, 151-160.

A Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic study of changes in chemistry of  Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) decayed by Coniophora puteana ((Schumacher) Karsten), Coriolus  versicolor ((L.) Quelet) and Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Burdsall) is presented.  Wood was exposed to fungi for different durations up to 12 weeks, with decay assessed through weight loss and FTIR.  The relative changes in intensities of spectral bands associated with lignin and carbohydrates as a result of decay were determined after different exposure periods.  In wood decayed by C. puteana there was a progressive increase in lignin content relative to carbohydrate evident from increases in the relative height of lignin associated bands (at 1596, 1505, 1330, 1230 and 1122 cm-1 in beech and 1596, 1511, 1268 and 1220 cm-1 in pine) and a corresponding decrease in the intensities of carbohydrate bands (at 1738, 1375, 1158 and 898 cm-1).  At higher weight losses, spectra for wood decayed by C. puteana have many similarities with that of Klason lignin isolated from wood.  In contrast, wood decayed by P. chrysosporium showed selective type decay with a reduction in peak heights associated with lignin relative to carbohydrates. Although weight losses in samples exposed to C. versicolor were high (45.5 % and 39.8 % for beech and Scots pine respectively after 12 weeks) simultaneous decay resulted in little change in the relative intensities of the lignin and carbohydrate bands, with only a slight preference for lignin.

 
  • Angadi, V.G. and H.S. Ananthapadmanabha (1988) variations in isoenzyme pattern associated with spike disease of Sandal. Indian Journal of Forestry. 11, 37-38.

In the sandal plant(santalum album L.) affected by spike disease caused by mycoplasma like organims, characteristics differences could be seen in the leaf peraoxidase, and malate dehydrogenase  isoenzyme pattern as compared to the healthy, both at the young and mature stage of the leaves. Esterase isoenzyme pattern , while changing from young to mature stage of leaves, remained the same both in the healthy and diseased leaves at any one stage.

 
  • Shankaranarayana K.H, V.R. Shivaramakrishnan, K.S. Ayyar and P.K Sensharma (1989). Isolation of compounds from bark of sandal against some lipidopterous and coleopterous insects, J. Entomol, Res, 3 (1), 116- 118

An insect growth inhibiting chemical has been isolated from the benzene extract of sandal bark and it was found to exert insect growth inhibition and chemosterelent  on two kinds of insects

 
  • Shivaramakrishanan V.R. and K.H. Shankaranarayana (1990), Investigations on the insecticidal properties of plant extractives: testing of new medicinal oil method HESP from spent sandal wood powder on insects, Sci and Cult, 56, 124-125

Exhausted sandal powder oil - HESP has been tested on insects which are causing damage to heart wood. The oil was found to inhibit attack by insects and therefore insecticidal properties have been evaluated for HESP oil.

 
  • Parimala varadaraj, K.H. Shankaranarayna and H.S. Anantha padmanabha (1992), Microflora associated with sandal tree, My Forest, 28(2), 208

The study of micro flora associated with sandal tree has indicated that bacteria and fungi are found to exit at a fairly higher concentration. It appears that bacteria ceases to exit in the wood where heartwood formation has already taken place in the living trees, whereas fungi thrives both in heartwood and sap wood. 

 
  • Sindhu Veerendra H.C, H.S. Ananthapadmanabha and K.H. Shankaranarayna (1993),Evaluation of TEMD- a new antibacterial compound, Indian Forester, 119(11), 946-947.

Aqueous solution of  "TEMD" (Tetra Ethanol Methylene Diamine )can easily be exploited as a good antibacterial agent against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtillis. 

           

 
  • Anil Kumar Dubey and R. Sundararaj. (2004). Host range of the spiraling whitefly Aleurodicus Disperses Russell (Aleyrodidae: Homoptera) in western ghats of south India.  Indian journal of Forestry. 27(1): 63-65.

The spiralling whitefly Aleurodicus Disperses Russell has been found to breed on 25 host plants in Western Ghats of South India, which includes 10 new host records

  • Anil Kumar Dubey, R. Sundararaj. (2004). A review of the genus Dialeuronomada Quaintance & Baker (Homiptera: Aleyordidae) with descriptions of two new species. Formosan Entomol  24: 147-157.

The whitefly genus Dialeurononmada Quaintance & Baker is reviewed.  This genus is so far represented by 14 species.;  In this paper two species, namely D.remadaviae Dubey & Sundararaj and D. rubiphaga Dubey & Sundararaj, are described as new to science.  A key to the Indian species of Dialeuronomada is given.

  • Sundararaj, R, A.K. Dubey (2003). Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)  associated with sandal (Santalum album L.) in southern India with description of a new species.  Entomon 28(4): 293-298.

Three species of whiteflies viz., Dialeurodes icfreae sp., n, Aleurocanthus martini David and Aleurodicus disperses Russell were found breeding on Santalum album L. in south India.  The new species in described and illustrated and A.marini is redescribed with illustration

  • R. Sundararaj and B. Vasantharaj David.  (2003).  Nassilieurodes homonoiae (Jesudasan and David) Comb. Nov. (Aleyrodidae: Homoptera).  Entomon, 28 (4): 371-372.

A study indicated that Pealius homonoiae Jesudasan and David and Massilieurodes splendens (Regu and David) are same species and a new name combination  Massilieurodes homonoiae (Jesudasan and David) is proposed.  Further, Massilieurodes splendens (Regu and David) is proposed as a new synonym of Massilieurodes homonoiae (Jesudasan and David).

  • Raji, B. O.K. Remadevi, and K.S. Rao(2003). First report on the incidence of white flies from eumangroves.  My Forest 39(4), 371-374.

Diversity of insects in the mangroves along the West coast was studied.  Three different species of white flies. Alerurodicus disperses Russeli, Aleurolobus nagercoilensis Regu and David and Aleurocanthus lobulatus Juesudasan and David, (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) were recorded.  The former was observed infesting the leaves of Kandelia candel (L.) Druce and the latter two, infesting the leaves of Rhizophora mucronata Poir.  Both the plants are true mangrove species, belonging to the tribe Rhizpphoraeae.This is the first report on white flies from Eumangroves.  Kandelia candel (L).  Druce is a new host record for Aleurodicus disperses.The population of white fly adults occurring in a mangrove patch in Kundapur, Karnataka was monitored for six months.  The population showed a fluctuating trend with peak in the month of September.

  • Mohammad Hayat, T.C., Narendran, O.K. Remadevi, & S.Manikandan. (2003).   Parasitoids (hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea; ceraphronoidea) reared mainly from coccoidea (Homoptera) attacking sandalwood, Santalum album L.Oriental Insects 37: 309-334.

The hymenopteran parasitoids of pests associated with sandalwood in southern Indian State of Karnataka are dealth with.  One new encytrid genus (Neperpolia) and ten new species are described.  6 species in Encyrtidae (Ancetus inglisiae Hayat, Metaphycus bolangerae Hayat, Microterys agaeus Hayat, Neperpolia bangalorensis, Hayat, Ooencyrtus Kerriae Hayat, philosindia inglisiae Hayat), one species in Singiphoridae (Singniphora Woolleyi Hayat) and 3 specie sin Eulophidae (Aprostocetus bangaloricus Narendran. A. Santalinus Narendran, Euplectrus nuperus Narendran).  The following species are recorded.  Aphelinidae: Coccophagus bivitttus, C. ceroplatae; C.cowperi; Encarsia citrina; Marietta leoparadina, Encyrtidae; Bothriophryne pulvnariae; Cheiloneurus basiri; Enncyrtus aurantii, Thomsonisca pakistanensis, Cephaleta nirpama; Scutellista caeurlea.

  • Sundararaj, R., Rajamuthukrishna and O.K. Remadevi. (2003). Field evaluation of some insecticides against termite infestation of sandal (Santalum album L.) Trees.  My Forest, 39(4), 375-378.

Seven insecticides were evaluated for their efficacy against termites in sandal plantations.  All the formulations tested gave significant protection compared to control. Lindane gave 100% protection till 6 months after application where as fenvalerate, cypermethrin, bifenthrin, permerthrin and chlorpyriphos gave 100% protection till 4 moths after application. Termiguard, a cashew nut shell liquid formulation and bifenthrin at the lower dosage were not effective and gave 100% protection only for two months

  • Narendran, T.C., B.Raji, O.K. Remadevi. (2003). A review of the oriental species of Megastigmus Dalman (Hymenoptera: Torymidae).  The oriental species of Megastigmus Dalman is reviewed.  The new species M. karnatakaensis Nrendran is described.  A key to the oriental species and notes on each known species are provided.  Entomon 28(4): 299-307.

The oriental species of Megastigmus Dalman is reviewed.  The new species M.Karnatakensis Narendran is described.  A key to the oriental species and notes on each known species are provided

  • Sundararaj, R., O.K.Remadevi, and Rajamuthukrishnan. (2003). Comparative efficacy of some insecticides in ground contact against subterranean termites. Pestology 27:2:16-18

An experiment was conducted to study the relative efficacy of some insecticides as wood preservative against subterranean.  Termites using rubber wood stakes pressure impregnated with the insecticides.  The results demonstrated that the cashewnut shell liquid was effective only for 10 months whereas chlorpyriphos and fenvalerate were effective for more than 24 months against subterranean termites.

  • Remadevi, O.K., H.C. Nagaveni, Raja muthukrishnan, M. Nagarajasharma (2002). Evaluation of the efficacy of cashew nut shell liquid based products (CNSL) against termites and fungi. Journal of the Timber Development Association of India. 48: 3-4: 15-19

Cashew nut shell liquid (CSNL) a herbal source of phenol, is being used in various industrial products including products including wood protecting formulations. To evaluate the efficacy of CNSL based formulations against wood eating termites and fungi, experiments were conducted as per standard procedure using three commercial products.  While the untreated rubber stakes are fully damaged the percentage of protection against termites after 10 months of field exposure was 99.2, 1,71.89 and 94.5 in the rubber stakes for more than 2 years.  While 50% was the weight loss by wood decay fungi in control the loss was only 20% and 10% respectively in the single and double coast treatment with CNSL preservatives.  The loss was only 5% in the CNSL products for wood protection against termites and fungi.

  • Nagaveni, H.C., O.K. Remadevi, M.N. Sharma, and R.V. Rao (2002). Studies on the durability of plantation grown Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem. Journal of the Timber Development Association of India. 48 (1 & 2): 32-36.

Tecomella undulata is one of the important timber specie which plays an important role in environmental conservation and also act as a soil binder in dry tracts.  Eight-year old T. undulata grown under a social forestry programme in Tamil Nadu has been evaluated for natural durability and it was found that heartwood is resistant to fungi as well as termites at this age.  Preservative treated panels also showed the same results.

  • Remadevi., O.K. (2002).  Powder post beetle attack on plantation timber in depots and its management. My Forest, 38 (1): 23-27.

Fast growing plantation timbers are extensively used in many industries like plywood, packing, furniture and paper industry.  The timber is stored in the open for a year or more before being utilized.  During storage, timber is prone to be attacked by various beetles, among which the major damage was found to be caused by powder post beetles belonging to Bostrychidae (Coleoptera).  The sapwood of timbers of Eucalyptus, Subabul, Cashew and Mango used for pulp and paper production and also other purposes were destroyed in varying degrees.  Notes on the Bostrychids, Sinoxylon spp. and Heterobostrychus aequalis nature and extent of damage of timber along with suggestions for the management of borers are discussed in the paper.

  • Remadevi, O.K, Raja Muthukrishnan. (2002). A note on infestation of  a new coccid pest, Hemilecanium imbricans (Green) Hemiptera: Coccidae) on Swietenia macrophylla King.  Annals of Forestry.  10 (2): 359-360.

Swietenia macrophylla is an important avenue and shade tree grown in Karnataka.  It was found that a new coccid pest, Hemilecanium imbricans caused severe sap drainage on the stem and shoots of this tree and may attain the status of an important pest in the future.

  • Sundararaj, R. (2001). Description of a new species of Dialeurolonga Dozier (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) breeding on Polyalthia longifolia Hook with a  key to Indian species.   Entomon 26(2): 191-194.

A new species of the whitefly genus Dialeurlonga Dozier viz., D malleswaremensis from Polyalthia longifolia is described and illustrated.   A key to Indian species of the genus Dialurolonga has been provided

  • Remadevi, O.K. (2001). Cultural control- the most viable component  of integrated pest management for the teak defoliators.   Recent trends in insect pest control to enhance forest productivity. 23-27.

Management of the teak defoliators, Eutectona machareralis Walker and Hyblaea puera Cramer have always been a matter of grave concern to teak growers because the attack by these pests adversely affects the growth and biomass of the trees.Though many efforts have been made to manage these pests through chemical and biological means, yet due to the complicated life history and behaviour of the pests, the population is not often contained to the desired extent.  The population dynamics of the pests, in the ecological conditions of Karnataka was studied for 5 years. The population build up was observed in 2 spells during a year. One milder during April to May and the other severe during September to December. The phenomenon of hibernation of E. mahaeralis was also observed during the winter months.  Since teak is a deciduous tree, all the infested leaves with pupae fall to the ground and the adults emerge at different times leading to the slow population built up, it is recommended that the fallen leaves along with the non-hibernating /hibernating larvae can be easily collected by sweeping the tree bottom and destroyed by burning.  The collection and burning of leaves, in addition to yielding ash for use as fertilizer, shall also help in reducing the pest population to a great extent.  Based on the experimental findings and on the available information, an IPM strategy including biological, chemical and cultural control is suggested for the management of teak defoliators.

  • Remadevi, O.K. K.S. Rao, and V.R. Sivaramakrishnan (2000). Incidence of  an insect borer, Macrotoma spinosa Fab. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in the logs of Casuarina equisetifolia L. used in marine aquaculture   farms. My Forest. 36(4). 277-279.

Casuarina equisitifolia is used in marine aquaculture farms for many purposes.  The used poles were observed to harbour larvae and adults of a cerambycid beetle, Macrotoma spinosa.  The description and life history of the beetle are presented and the infestation details are discussed

  • Remadevi, O.K., Sivaramakrishnan, V.R., C.R. Sarma.  Control of  arboreal termites on Santalum album L. in plantations.  Sandal and its products. Proceedings of an International seminar held at Bangalore, India. Canberra ACIAR proceedings No. 84: 196-199.

Arboreal termites, Odontotermes spp., are often observed in sandal plantations.The attack leads to loss of bark, poor health, and infestation of stem-boring insects.  The infestation is highest (up to 50%) in winter.  An experiment was conducted at Yelwala sandal plantations, maintained by the Institute of Wood Science and Technology, to study the comparative effectiveness of different insecticides (Chlorphyriphos, BIIC, phorate, quinalphos and lime) in various combinations and doses.  Observations on termite incidence were taken periodically for one year.  It was observed that use of chlorpyriphos 20 EC (2.5%) gave adequate protection for up to four months with decreasing protection thereafter.  The effectiveness of all the treatments were compared and are reported here

  • Remadevi, O.K, Raja Muthukrishanan (2003). Biological control of pests of sandal, Santalum album Linn.  Workshop on biological control.

The tree, Santalum album Linn. (Santalaceae) is highly valuable for its scented heartwood and oil. This tree is recorded to be attacked by more than 150insects pests (Mathur and Singh, 1960).  Recently many more new insect pests were recorded. While some of these pests are classified as serious pests, the rest are less serious in nature, but having the potential to attain pest status due to high population build up.

  • Remadevi, O.K., Raja Muthukrishnan, and L.N. Santhakumaran. Studies on the         sap-sucking pests of Santalum album L. in nurseries and plantations. Proceedings of an International seminar held at Bangalore, India, Canberra ACIAR Proceedings NO. 84: 200-203.

Among the different insect pests including defoliators, stem borers and termites, the role of sap sucking insects belonging mainly to the family Coccidae, is very crucial being deleterious to the normal health, growth and reproduction of the sandal plants. The main coccids which cause dieback and lessening of fruit setting are Saissetia sp., lnglisia bivalvata Green, Ceroplastes ceriferus and Kerria lacca Kerr.  All belonging to the family Coccidae.  The details of the habits, damage potential nature of damage and control measures is given in this paper

  • Remadevi, O.K. Raja Muthukrishnan. Incidence, damage potential  and biology of wood-borers of Santalum album L. Proceedings of an International seminar held at Bangalore, India. Canberra, ACIAR  Proceedings No.84: 192-195

The wood of Santalum album is damaged by the borers Indarbela quaderinotata (Lepidoptera: Indarbelidae), Zeuera coffeae (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) and Aristobia octofasciculata (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) The infestation by these borers, especially the latter two, leads to die-back and mortality in smaller trees. Indarbela quadrinotata, the caterpillars of which feed on the bark, damage the sapwood by living in the bored cavities of the wood.  The occurrence, nature of damage, symptoms and brief biology of the different borers are given in this paper. Survey of the sandal depots was conducted to study the extent of damage and loss of heartwood due to the attack of borers and termites.  It was observed that 10-50 percent (average 25%) of sandal timber in the depots had hollowed heartwood.  An average of 198.6 kg of heartwood is lost for every tonne of wood produced by sandal trees

  • Remadevi, O.K., V.R. Sivaramakrishnan. (1997). Indian wax scale, Ceroplastes cerifeurs (Fabricuius) Hemiptera: Coccidae),  a  potential pest of Santalum album L.  My Forest, June 33(2), 469-471.

The Indian wax scale, Ceroplastes ceriferus (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Coccidae), is reported as a potential pest of sandal, Santalum album L.  This insect has been recorded from various parts of India and species of Asclepiadron, Boswellia, Terminalia and  on tree species like Lawsonia alba  Boswelia serrata, Buchanania latifolia and Melia indica.  The high fecundity and availability of host plants in plenty may lead to the establishment of this pest, which can attain a major pest status.

  • Remadevi, O.K, Raja muthukrishnan and L.N. Santhakumaran. (1997). Natural infestation of Lac insect, Kerria lacca (Kerr.), on Acacia auriculaeformis - threat or Boon.  Wood News, 7(3) : 13-14.

6% of Acacia auriculaeformis trees raised as plantation in mine dumps at BBH mines in Chitradurga were heavily infested by lac insect, Kerria lacca. Heavily affected branches were found dry and devoid of leaves and severely affected small plants were dried and dead.  Larvae of Eublemma amabilis were found playing an important role as biocontrol agents. Quinalphos  at 0.5% along with a sticker was sprayed for the control of the problem. As high yield of lac was observed in the trees, it is suggested that these trees can be used for lac cultivation.

  • Remadevi O.K,Raja muthukrishnan, A. Ratna Rao, V.R. Sivaramakrishnan,&L.N. Santhakumaran. Epidemic outbreak of lac insect, Kerria lacca (Kerr), on Santalum album (Sandal) and its control. (1997). Indian Forester, 123 (2) : 143-147.

An epidemic outbreak of lac insect Kerria lacca on sandal and its host trees at Gottipura and Nallal in Hoskote range (Karnataka) is reported. It is found that 24.5% of the trees were heavily affected (9.3% of which are dead), 25..5% had medium attack and 50% were completely free.  To control the lac infestation, the affected branches were lopped off, burnt and an insecticide viz., Ekalux 20 AF 0.5% mixed with 0.05% sticker was sprayed on the tree. The treated trees were watered. This has completely controlled the lac infestation on sandal. A second spray with any insecticides, like Rogor 30 EC, Fenvalerate, Cypermethrin or Dimethoate, may be sprayed after formation of new flush of leaves, to check further secondary infection.

  • Sivaramakrishnan, V.R and Remadevi, O.K, Insect pests in forest nurseries in Karnataka, India, with notes on Insecticidal control of a psyllid on Albizia lebbeck. (1996).  Proc. IUFRO symp. On impact of diseases and insect pests in tropical forests.  460-463.

In forest nurseries in Karnataka, defoliation by curculionids, scarabids and chrysomelids is very common, especially after the rains.  Sap suckers such as psyllids, aphids and membracids play an equally devastating role causing heavy mortality of seedlings.  In the case of Albizia lebbeck very heavy damage is caused by the psyllid Arytaina sp.,  in some nurseries.  Results of an insecticidal trial for control of the Albizia psyllid are given.

  • Remadevi, O.K., R.Sundararaj, and Raja Muthukrishnan. (2002).  Evaluation of the efficacy of permethrin as a termiticide for timber protection on field condition. Paper   presented in National conference on Environment biodiversity and bioethics: Current  Trends and Future Directions : p77

Combating the wood-eating termites is the biggest problem faced by timber industry and which comes in the way of sustainable use of the most widely used natural resource, timber.  With the banning of organochlorine insecticides, many new chemicals including pyrethroids are presently being employed for protection of timber in varied end uses. Permethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid is one among the effective insecticides, which is used world wide for timber protection against termites and borers.  Utility of permethrin as a termicide for wood protection has not hitherto been studied in Indian conditions.  Hence, the efficacy of permethrin was tested on the field condition to evaluate its utility as a potential termiticide.  After a year of field exposure, the permethrin treated rubber wood was found unattacked by termites.

  • Krishnan, R.V, V.R. Sivaramakrishnan,  (1993). Occurrence and seasonal wood- destroying activity of Odontotermes sp.  of termites. My Forest,29(1),  59-64.

The genus Odontotermes (Termitidae: Isoptera) constitutes large, most common and important group of wood destroying termites of the oriental and ethiopean regions.  The seasonal activity of termites was studied by installation of untreated timber panels in the test yard.  Of the ten species of Odontotermes identified O. horni (Washmann), O. anamallensis Holmgren & Holmgren and O. redemanni (Washmann) are new locality records.  Foraging activity of O. horni (Wasmann) was maximumj from July to October.  The study revealed that the relation of rainfall with incidence of termite seems to be somewhat inverse and no relation between the incidence of termites and atmospheric humidity is apparent.   It can be presumed for the present that the effect of rain in loosening the dry and hard soil facilitates quick and active movement of termites and the increased moisture content favours fungal growth and maintenance of the fungal comb in the termitaria which meets the nutritional demands of these subterranean termites.

  • Thakur, R.K., V.R. Sivaramakrishnan, V.R. (1991). A note on the insect pest problems in Kundapur and Mangalore Forests, Karnataka (South India). My Forest, 27(2), 187-190.

Survey was carried out during March-April, 1986 and August 1987 to study the insect pest problems by termites and other pests in Kundapur and Mangalore Forest Divisions. The major insect pests were Eligma narcissus, Phassus malabaricus, Celosterna scrabator, Plocaederus ferrugineus and coccids.  Of the eleven species of termites Coptotermes heinii, Odontotermes obesus and Microtermes obesi are among the major wood destroying termites and cause much damage to the forest plantations.

  • Sivaramakrishnan, V.R., K.H. Shankaranarayana  (1990).  Investigations on the insecticidal properties of plant extractives-I: Testing of new medicinal oil HESP from spent sandalwood powder on insects  Science and culture 56: 124-125.

The potential utility of the new medicinal oil (HESP) from the spent sandalwood powder as a 3rd generation insecticide in controlling forest pests, Attteva fabriciella, defoliator pest of Alianthus malabrica and A. excelsa was investigated.  The moths have been subjected to some sterilisation when fed directly and those emerging out of the treated larvae exhibited abnormalities.

  • Y. B. Srinivasa, A. N. Arun Kumar and K. D. Prathapan, 2004, Canopy arthropods of Vateria indica L. and Dipterocarpus indicus Bedd. in the rainforests of Western Ghats, South India. Current Science, 86(10):1420-1426.

This study aimed at quantifying the total arthropod diversity by fogging the rainforest canopies at Makuta, Western Ghats. Emergent canopies of Vateria indica and Dipterocarpus indicus were fogged with short-lived pyrethroid and arthropods collected. Arthropod samples thus obtained were comparable with those from other tropical parts of the world for species richness and diversity. In general, arthropods from D. indicus were more diverse than those from V. indica. Coleoptera tended to be more dominant and hence less diverse in canopies of both trees. The most diverse group in D. indicus was Diptera, while Areneae was the most diverse group in V. indica canopy. The proportion of singletons was extremely high for all the groups, often exceeding 75%. Our results suggest that the arthropod composition of the most dominant tree species in the forest could significantly influence the composition of the samples drawn from other tree species in the same forest.

  • Ananthapadmanabha, H.S. Spike like disease in sandal (1998). ACIAR Proceedings No.84, pp 185-187.

Sandal trees are distributed in South Seoni district. Madhya Pradesh in an area of about 3000 ha. They contain a significant amount of scented heartwood and oil.  Trees exhibited symptoms similar to spike disease occurring in South India.  Symptoms observed were reduction in leaf size, occurrence of short dead branches, yellowing of leaves, and occasional occurrence of tufts of auxiliary shoots arising from the main branches.  On closer observation of the trees, and based on different tests conducted for spike disease, it was evident that the disease like symptoms were due to physiological and abiotic factors in the area, and thee was no incidence of spike disease in the sandal population

  • Dubey. A.K and , R.Sundararaj. (2004). Host range  of the spiraling whitefly Aleurodicus disperses Russell (Aleyrodidae: Homoptera) in Western Ghats of South India.  Indian Journal of Forestry 27(1):63-65.

The spiraling whitefly Aleurodicus disperses  Russell has been found to breed on 25 host plants in Western Ghats of South India which includes 10 new host records.

  • Dubey, A.K., and R.Sundararaj. (2004). Evaluation of Neem products against Aleurodicus disperses Russell (Aleyrodidae: Homoptera) on Bauhinia  variegata and Michelia champaca Indian Journal of Plant protection. 32:2: 126-128.

Experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of neemoil alone and in combination with chlorphyuphos and some neem formulations against the spiraling whitefly Alerodicsus disperses on Bauhinia varigata and Michelia champaca. The results revealed that neem oil is equally effective like that of commercial neem formulations and chlorpyriphos in containing the nymphal population on both plants

  • Dubey, A.K., K.Regu, and R. Sundararaj (2004).  Aleyrodid (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) fauna of the Lakshadweep, India.  Entomon 29(3): 279-286

A survey revealed the occurrence of 12 species of whiteflies representing 11 genera in Lakshadweep.  They were found on plants representing 9 families.  Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) was found breeding  on four host plants, Dialerropora decempuncta (Quaintance & Baker) on three, and Aleurodicus disperses Russell on two. The plant species Thespesia populnea (L). Corr. harboured four species of whiteflies, viz., Aleroclava complex  Singh, Aleurodicus disperses Russell, Aleurolobus marlatti (Quaintance) and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius).

  • Dubey, A.K. and R. Sundararaj. (2004). A review of the Genus Dialeuronomada Quaintance & Baker (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) with description of two new species. Formosan Entomol 24:147-157.

The whitefly genus Dialeuronomada Quaintance and Baker is reviewed.  This genus is so far represented by 14 speices.  In this  paper two species, namely D. remadaviae Dubey & Sundararaj and D. rubiphaga Dubey and Sundarraj, are described as new to science.  A key to the Indian species of Dialeuronomada is given

  • Dubey, A.K., R.Sundararaj. (2004). Whitefly species of the genus Aleurocanthus Quaintance and Baker (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) from India, with descriptions of six new species. Oriental insects, 39:295-321.

The whitefly genus Aleurocanthus Quaintance and Baker is  represented by 25 species in India.  In the present paper six new species viz., A.bangalorensis, A.firmianae, A.goaensis, A.sayanarayani, A. terminaliae, and A. vindhyachali are described and illustrated.  A key to Indian species of Aleurocanthus is given.

  • Nagaveni, H.C, M.Anandalakshmi and K.H. Shankaranarayana. (2004). Fungitoxic studies with a  new dye substance from Persea macrantha (Jigat). My Forest 40(4): 331-334.

Anti fungal efficacy of a new dye substance from Persea macrantha bark (jigat) extract has been studied against pathogens of some important seedling diseases using disc diffusion method.  Bark extract showed significant anti fungal potential against Fusairum oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani. Persea macrantha bark extract which showed chemotherapeutic properties can be exploited as a good anti-fungal agent against pathogenic fungi

  • Narendran, T.C., Raji, B., O.K. Remadevi. (2003).  A review of the oriental speices of Megastigmus Dalman (hymenoptera: Torymidae) Entomon 28(4): 299-307.

The oriental species of Megastigmus dalman is reviewed.  The new species M. karnatakenis Narendran is described .  A key to the oriental species and notes on each known species are provided.

  • Raja Muthukrishnan, O.K. Remadevi, and R.sundarraj. (2004). Beetle pests of timbers used for handicraft and packing cases in Karnataka: A survey report. Contribution to bioscience, Felicitation volume 202-211.

Handicrafts is considered an ancient cottage industry, representing the rich heritage of India and earning a very high foreign exchange.  Packing case industry utilizes a lion share of the timber produced in our country.  Surveys were conducted in many factories, godowns and showrooms of handicraft and packing industries in Chennapatna, Mysore and Bangalore districts of Karnataka state, to identify the wood borer pest damage and to assess the loss encountered in the  above industries.  Information were recorded  in a formatted questionnaire and the damaged timber along with different stages of the beetle were collected for study. It was observed that  other than the 17 conventional timbers, 8 other  alternate timber species are being used in these industries. The three major beetle pests are Lyctus africantus, Sinaxylon species and Heterobostrychus aequalis.  A loss of upto 25% is estimated due to insect pest damage to the timber from the raw wood to the finished product stage.  This loss could be attributed to the use of sapwood on conventional timbers and the use of alternate and short rotation plantation timbers utilized in the handicraft and packing case industries.

  • Raja Muthukrishnan, O.K. Remadevi, And R.Sundararaj. (2003). Natural durability of Indian and exotic timbers against termites. Proceedings of the national workshop on wood preservation in India Challenges opportunities and strategies held  at Institute of wood Science and Technology. 41-44.

The demand, ban on timber felling, escalating cost and poor supply of conventional timbers has forced the consumer to utilize secondary timbers, plantation timbers and exotic timbers. Secondary and exotic timbers are presently being used on a large scale for varied purposes like building, furniture making, handicraft products, packing cases., etc., knowledge on the natural durability of these secondary and exotic timbers against termites, would enable the consumer to predict the service life of the timber and to decide whether the timber should be used with or without preservative treatment. This paper deals with field trials on the natural resistance of 9 commercially available conventional and exotic timber species namely Australian hone, Intisia sp.,Shorea sp.,Artocarpus heterophyllus Pterocarpus dalberiodes, Samanea saman, Tectona grandis (Indian and Burma teak), Mangifera indica and Malasian hone.  Three test panels for each species  prepared from pure  heartwood with sample size 30.5 x 3.8 x 3.8 cm.as per IS:401-1982 standard were selected  for the natural resistance studies. Each of the test panels were buried three-fourth in the grave yard.  The duration of study was for a period of 36 months and four timber species Tectona grandis, Shorea sp., Artocarpus heterophyllus, Pterocarpus dalbergiodes were found to be highly resistant against termite attack in the field.

  • Remadevi, O.K., Raja Muthukrishnan, (2004). Field trials to test termiticidal efficacy of selective chemicals on wood.  Journal of Indian Academy of Wood Science 1 (1 &2) 113-117.

Wood preservatives, CCA 6% (Copper-Chrome-Arsenate) and ACA -4% (Ammoniacal- Copper Arsenite) which are acclaimed as long term preservatives were   tested on rubberwood along with 1% chlorphyriphos ( an orgnophosphorous insecticide) as wood protectants in field conditions  as per standard  procedure (IS:4833-1968).  Observations were taken periodically from 1996 onwards for a period of 8 years.  While the control rubber wood stake were free of any termite attack the pressure treatments with CCA, ACA and chlorphyriphos are still unattacked  by termites. In the chlophyrophos dip diffusion treatments, termite damage was observed after five years.  The damage was visible only after six years in the case of CCA  and ACA dip diffusion  treatments

  • Remadevi, O.K., R.Sundararaj, K.Satyanarayana Rao, (2004). Scope of neem products and pheromones for the management of forest insect pests . Journal of non timber forest products  11(2):125-130.

Application of biopesticides and pheromones are emerging as effective methods of controlling insect pests without causing any adverse effect on the environment. Among the plants, Neem (Azadirachta indica) is the single most important source of pesticides and its potential against several agricultural and horticultural crop pests have been well documented. Only few reports on the potential of neem for the management of tree pests are available.  In this paper, an attempt is made to review the effects of neem products on the insect pests of forestry importance.  Techniques based on pheromones are viable alternatives for pest management in agriculture and forestry. A review on these lines indicates that many countries have history of success in using pheromones in the management of forest insect pests.

  • Sundarraj, R., and A.K. Dubey. (2004). The whitefly genus Martiniella Jesudasan and David (Aleyrodidae: Hemiptera), with description of one new species from India. Entomon 24(4): 357-360.

A new species of whitefly Mariniella papillata infesting on Xeromphis spinosa in Goa (India) is described.  A key to the Indian species of the genus is given.

  • Sundararaj, R., O.K. Remadevi, and Raja Muthukrishnan (2004). Some plant products as antifeedants against the teak defoliator, Hyblaea puera Cramer (Lepidoptera: Hyblaeidae) and teak skeletonizer, Paliga machaeralis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Annals of Forestry 12(2):273-277.

An experiment was conducted to compare the antifeedant property of water and methanolic  extracts of leaves of Clerodendrum inerme and a solid colouring matter obtained form the bark of Persea macrantha with that of the methanolic extracts of leaves of Azadirachta indica against Hyblea puera and Paliga machaeralis.  The results showed that the water extracts of C. inerme was ineffective while methanolic extracts of C. inerme at 5% was as effective as 5% concentrate of leaf extract of A.indica.  The solid colouring matter form P.macrantha was more effective even at 1% concentration, effecting 100% antifeedant activity against both the pests.

  • Sundararaj, R., O.K. Remadevi, and Raja Muthukrishnan. (2003 ). Efficacy of rubber wood impregnated with some insecticides against subterranean termites. Proceedings of the National workshop on wood preservation in Indian challenges, opportunities and strategies held at Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Bangalore. 69-72.

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of rubber wood stakes impregnated by pressure (15 minutes vacuum followed by 50 lbs/sq. inch air pressure for 30 minutes) with two organophosphorus insecticides  viz., chlorphyriphos @ 1% active ingredient (a.i) and  acephate @ 1% a.i., and three synthetic   pyrethroid insecticides viz., permethrin @ 1% a.i, cypermethrin @ 0.5% a.i. and alphacypermethrin @ 0.5% a.i. against subterranean termites.  The data collected indicated that within 6 months of implantation there was damage of 61.4% in untreated stakes, which was total within 12 months of implantation. Among the insecticides treated stakes, acephate treated  stakes were ineffective and showed 5% damage within 24 months of implantation getting total damage within 30 months of implantation. The rubber stakes impregnated with other inseticides like chlorphyriphos, permethrin, cypermethrin and alphacypermethrin were free from any damage for more than 36 months. These findings demonstrated that these insecticides can be effectively used for the preservation of highly perishable woods

  • Sundararaj, R., Rajamuthukrishna and O.K. Remadevi. (2004 ). Pest management potential of Pongamia Pinnata (L). Pierre. Proceedings of the "International Conference on Multipurpose Tree Species in the Tropics : Assessment Growth and Management" held at FRI, Jodhpur . 252-255.

In this paper the pest management potential of pongam is reviewed.  Further, experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential of pongam cake along with neem cake and VAM for the management of the spiraling whitefly Aleurodicus dispersus Russell on Michelia champaka and Bauhinia variegata nurseries and the findings are discussed

  • Anil Kumar Sethy, H.C. Nagaveni, Sanjai Mohan and K.T. Chandra shekar (2005 ).Fungal decay resistance of rubber wood treated with heartwood extract of rosewood. Paper presented in IRG for Wood Preservation workshop held in Bangalore IRG/WP05- 30367

Alcoholic extract of Dalbergia latifolia heartwood was studied for its toxicity towards wood decaying fungi.  Rubber wood blocks were treated with this extract to three different retention levels (0.1%, 0.2% & 0.5%) and the treated wood blocks were assessed for their resistance towards two white rot and two brown rot fungi. Treated blocks showed improved resistance over the control blocks. At 0.5% retention level, treated rubber wood blocks exposed to fungus showed a weight loss of 15% as compared to 57% in control blocks.  A positive correlation was found between fungal decay resistance and retention level of the extract.

  • Dubey, A.K., & R. Sundararaj. (2005). A review of the genus Aleuroclava Singh (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) with descriptions of eight new species from India.  Oriental Insects, 39: 241-272.

Eight new species of the genus Aleuroclava Singh viz., A. calicutensis, sp. nov. (Kerala: Calicut) A. calycopteriseae, sp. nov.(Karnataka : Kudremukh), A. davidi, sp. nov.(Tamil Nadu:Jamunamarathur hills), A. doddabettaenis, sp.nov. (Tamil Nadu: Doddebatta), A. kudremukhensis, sp. nov (Karnataka: Kuderemukh), A. martini, sp. nov. (Karnataka: Kuderemukh), A. papillata, sp. nov. (Karnataka: Kudremukh) and A. ramachandrani, sp. nov (Karnataka: Unachali falls) are described  and illustrated. Two new combinations Aleurclava muuayae (Singh), comb. nov. and Aleuroclava psidii (Singh) comb. nov. are proposed.  This bring the number of Indian species of Aleuroclava to 49.  New hosts have been recorded for the Indian species of Aleuroclava.

  • Dubey, A.K., R. Sundararaj. (2005). Description of new species of the genus Tetraleurodes Cockerell (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) with a key to Indian species. Zoos Print Journal 20(7): 1924-1926.

The whitefly genus Tetraleurodes Cockerell from India was studied. A  new species Tetraleurodes dendrocalamae breeding on Dendrocalamus strictus in Kudremukh National Park, Karnataka, India is described and illustrated.  A key to the Indian species of the genus is given.

  • Dubey, A.K, and R. Sundararaj (2005). Davidiella cinnamomi, a new genus and species of whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) from India. Entomon 30(4)-351-354.

Davidiella cinnamomi a new genus and species of whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) infesting Cinnamomum sulphuratum in Kudremukh National Park, Karnataka is described and illustrated.

  • Dubey, A.K., and R. Sundararaj. (2005). Three new species  of Fippataleyrodes Sundararaj and David (Aleyrodidae: Hemiptera) from western ghats of South India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 102(2):  204-207

The whitefly genus Fippataleyrodes sundararaj and David was  represented in India, so far, by two species.  Three new species of Fippataleyrodes, namely F. cinnamomi, F. multipori and F. yellapurensis, breeding in the western ghats of southern India, have been described here.  A key to the Indian species of the genus is given.

  • Nagaveni, H.C., O.K. Remadevi, and G. Vijayalakshmi. (2005). Natural resistance of exotic acacias against wood decay fungi. Paper presented in National Workshop on Exotics in Indian forestry" held at Ludhiana.

Acacia  auriculaeformis and A. mangium are among the important exotic species of acacia, which are introduced to India from Australia. These species have proved very successful in afforestation and reclamation of waste lands due to their adaption to new habitats and rapid growth potential.  They are planted as shelter plants, soil improver and ornamented plants.  Besides, these are economically important trees as source of tannin, gum, pulp and timber.  The plantation of A. auriculaeformis, A. mangium and their hybrid variety are being raised as plantation mainly as source of pulp for the paper mills.  As more and more plantations of these species are coming up, wood is also used as timber for furniture, tools, agricultural implements, turnery articles, toys, construction material etc. The natural resistance of timber from 15 year old plantation of  A. auriculaeformis, A. mangium and their hybrid received from Mysore Paper mills, Bhadravathi was tested for their durability against wood rotting fungi as per IS 4873-1968 under laboratory conditions.  All the three acacias showed high resistance against all the test fungi and the timber can be grouped under class-I.

  • Nagaveni, H.C., G. Vijayalakshmi, and. S.S. Chauhan. (2005). Decay resistance of esterified and oligo esterified rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis). Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 17(4):452-473.

Rubberwood samples were chemically modified using a two step reaction. The wood was esterified with two different dicarboxylic acid anhydrides, namely, maleic anhydride and phathalic anhydride and subsequently treated with epichlorophydrin to obtain oligoesterified wood. The treated wooden blocks were assessed for bio-resistance against white and brown rot fungi. Malefic anhydride alone treated samples showed resistance  only for the brown rot attack but failed to protect against the white rot fungi.  Except for the malefic anhydride treatment, other treatments showed a weight loss of less than 10%.  All these treatments can be taken as effective treatments for rubberwood,  However, the best effect was shown in the combination of phtalic anhydride and epichlorohydrin.  This technique was found to be promising as an environmental friendly method to protect rubberwood against decay fungi and to provide dimensional stability required for better uses of timber.  This treatment helps to promote the use of low quality timber such as rubberwood, which is cheaper alternative to primary timber.

  • Raji, B., and O.K. Remadevi. (2005). Diversity indices of insects in the mangroves of Karnataka along the west coast of India. Indian Journal of Tropical Biodiversity,   13(2): 92-96.  

The insect fauna of mangroves has received little attention in spite of its diversity.  Eighty two morpho-species of insects belonging to 44 Families and 7 Orders were collected from Jalady mangroves in the west coast of Karnataka during the one year period of observation. The Shannon's index of diversity for polled data of the bimonthly collections at Jalady ranges from 2.337-3.274.  The collections recorded a species richness index of 0.981. Diptera was found to be the most dominant order with a dominance index of 42.54.  The Shannon's evenness index of insect of insect diversity calculated from the pooled data shows an intermediate evenness.  The study has enabled us to form the most baseline data on the insect diversity of mangroves in the west coast of India.  This is the first report on the quantitative assessment of insect diversity from a mangrove.  The study also revealed that though the vegetation diversity is low in angroves, the insect diversity is comparable to any other tropical forest ecosystem.

  • Remadevi, O.K., H.C. Nagaveni, R.Muthukrishnan. (2005). Pests and diseases of sandalwood plants in nurseries and their management. Working papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute. 11 69-75.

Sandalwood, the highly valued tree of global fame, grows naturally under suitable conditions in different parts of India.  Relating to conservation efforts and also to promote sandalwood as a commercial species, many sandal nurseries are maintained  in different states of India.  Reconnaissance surveys were conducted in the sandalwood growing areas in the states of Karnataka, Tamilnadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh during 1994-1999 to study the occurrence and distribution of insect pests and diseases of sandalwood plants in the nurseries, plantations and natural distribution of insect pests and disease of sandalwood plants in the nurseries, plantations and natural forests.  Defoliators and sapsuckers were the most devastating pests.  An account of the more important ones and their natural enemies is given in this paper.  Seedling diseases (damping off and wilt) were found to take a heavy toll (up to 100%) in the nurseries.  The casual organisms were identified as Fusarium oxysporum and Phytophora spp. and nematodes.  Control measures were standardized for pest and disease management in the sandalwood nurseries.

  • Remadevi, O.K, Raja Muthukrishnan, H.C. Nagaveni, R. Sundararaj, and G.Vijayalakshmi. (2005). Durability of bamboos in India against termites and fungi and chemical treatments  for its enhancement. IRG/WP05-10553, IRG Secretariat SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden. Paper presented for the 36 th Annual meeting, Bangalore, India.           

Bamboo is a very important forest resource that benefits the life of people in a myriad ways including meeting the need for structural uses like posts, pole fencing, scaffoldings, house building, etc, Although it is one of the strongest structural material available, often succumbs to fungal decay and biodeterioration by insects (termites and powder post beetles) during storage and usage.  Studies were undertaken on the natural durability of some selected bamboo species against termites in the field condition and against  decay under accelerated laboratory conditions.  Also the efficacy of CCA treatment by two methods of applications and two organosphosphorous, three synthetic pyrethroid insecticides and cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) were evaluated  for enhancing the durability of bamboo against subterranean termites.  The studies indicated that the durability of different species varied greatly and flowered bamboos were more durable than non flowered bamboos against termites and fungi.  Boucherie process of treatment with CCA was found more effective than sap displacement method. Among the insecticides evaluated Chlorphyriphos was found most effective in enhancing the durability.  The findings were discussed in the present communication.

  • Raja Muthukrishnan, O.K. Remadevi. (2005).  A modified method to determine the toxic values of chemicals against Lyctus africanus (Lesne) by larval transfer method (laboratory method).   Paper presented in International Research Group on Wood Protection IRG/WP 05-20309.

Lyctus africanus (Lesne) is the commonest species widely distributed by trade throughout India.  It is one of the most important insect pest attacking longs, branchwood and practically every kind of manufactured wooden article that contains sapwood. Presently, in India many short rotation and alternate timbers are being used for making many finished products.  The inclusion of sapwood containing starch makes these products very susceptible to insect borer attack.  Consequently, many wood preservative companies are coming out with many formulations to combat powder post beetle attack.  Currently there exists no Indian standard to test these wood preservatives against the powder post beetle infestation.  Since the testing using adult beetle releasing increases the testing period it is not much appreciated.  As insect borer larval activity is visible to judge the progress of the test and also as it reduces the test period, a modified method to determine the toxic value of the chemicals against L. africanus by larval transfer method has been standardized based on the European standard EN21

  • Remadevi, O.K., Raja Muthukrishnan and Y.B. Srinivasa. (2005). Clonal variation in the incidence of phytophagous insects: some thoughts on divergence of Teak. Quality Timber Products of Teak from Sustainable Forest Management 467-471.

Characters are known to diverge over time in spatially separated populations.  We studied the population divergence of teak (Tectona grandis) across the state of Karnataka, India with respect to the incidence of phytophagous insects.  Data on the incidence of the teak defoliators- Hyblaea puera and Paliga machoeralis (both indigenous species) and the spiraling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus recently introduced polyphagous species) were recorded from two clonal assemblages for a period of three years.  Individual clones as well as the provenances did not show any significant variation with respect to the incidence of either H. puera or P. machoeralis indicating  divergence in the populations of teak.  The results show that the defoliators are not directly responsible for the variations that exist across clones and provenances and that these defoliators are able to overcome the existing variations and continue building populations.

  • Remadevi, O.K., H.C. Nagaveni, Raja  Muthukrishanan and G. Vijayalakshmi.(2005).  Natural resistance of wood of Cleistanths collinis (Roxb.) Benth. and Hook. against wood decay fungi and termites.  Journal of Indian Academy of Wood Science, 2(2): 45-49.

The natural resistance of the wood of Cleistanthus collinus (Roxb) Benth and Hook against wood rotting fungi was studied by laboratory bioassay (IS 4873-1968) and against termites by field tests (IS 4833-1968).  The results revealed that the wood blocks of heartwood of C. collinus are very resistant to decay fungi (both brown and white rots) with exposed to termites in the field were totally free from termite attack served as controls were completely destroyed within 6 months.  It can be ascertained that extractives present in the wood are responsible for the natural resistance of the timber to biological degradation by both fungi and termites.

  • Remadevi, O.K, and R. Sundararaj. (2005). Field  incidence and management of major pests neem and pongamia in Karnataka.  My Forest 41(2A): 265-268. 

The objectives of the study were to assess the nature and extent of damage by major pests on neem and pongamia grown in Karnataka and to standardize methods for their management.  During the entire course of survey in 3 districts (Bangalore, Chitradurga and Tumkur) it was observed that the amount of damage caused by the tea mosquito bug, Helopeltis antonii and the shoot tip borer, Laspeyresia Koenigiana are more as compared to any other pests on neem.  Higher levels of defoliation were due to weevils, i.e., Myllocerus sp.  and chrysomelid beetle followed by leaf webber/skeletonizer.  Survey of Pongamia revealed that the fruit galls and leaf galls are the problems to be tackled to boost up the economy of the farmers engaged in social forestry.  The activity of Asphondylia pongamiae was not noticed in the field condition and more than 80% of fruits had turned into galls.  Leaf galls due to Aceria pongamiae was found as a serious problem. Insect pests like defoliators- ash weevil, leaf webber (Lamprosema niphealis),  leaf minor, (Acrocercops anthracuris, Lithocollectis virgulata) and shoot tip borer Enarmonia perfrictes were also noticed.  The population of leaf gall mite was found reduced on application of acaricidal chemicals.

  • Shakti, S.Chauhan and H.C. Nagaveni. ( 2005). Moisture adsorption behaviour of rubber   wood decayed  by brown and  white rot fungi.    Paper presented in the workshop the International Research Group on Wood Protection IRG/Np05-40306 .

Moisture adsorption behaviour of rubber wood blocks decayed by each brown rot and white rot fungi was studied.  The adsorption isotherms of decayed wood were compared with the isotherm of undecayed wood.  The wood decayed by brown rot adsorbed less moisture as compared to sound or undecayed wood at all humidity levels. No significant difference was observed in adsorption behaviour of white rot decayed and un-decayed wood.  The adsorption isotherms were  analyzed using Hailwood-Horrobin model of water sorption in terms of water of hydration of wood (Mh) and dissolved water (Ms) corresponding to monolayer and multilayer and multilayer adsorption respectively.  The analysis suggested a significant reduction in both Mh and Ms values for brown rot decayed rubber wood suggesting the loss of number of adsorptive sites by the decay.  A good agreement between experimentally obtained adsorption isotherms and with those obtained using model

  • Sundararaj, R., and A.K. Dubey. (2005). Potential of plant products for the management of  whiteflies in nurseries. Working papers for the Finnish Forest Research Institute.

Whiteflies are tiny sap sucking insects belonging to the Family Aleyrodidae. They injure plant in a variety of ways.  Among them the spiraling whitefly Aleurodicus dispersus and the babul whitefly Acaudaleyrodes rachipora are highly polyphagous attacking important tree species both in nurseries and plantations.  Experiments were conducted to study the efficacy of a dye obtained from the bark of Persea macrantha against A. dispersus on Michelia champaca seedlings.  The result showed that the 1% concentration of dye dissolved in ethanol and teepol were very effective in containing the population of the nymphs of A. dispersus  on M. champaca.  Further foliar application of neem seed oil alone at 5% concentration and basal application on deoiled neem cake at 1 gm/polybag gave effective control of the babul whitefly A. rachipora on important tree species of arid and semi-aird  zone of India.  The findings are discussed in this communication.

  • Sundararaj, R., and A.K. Dubey (2005). Parabemisia Myricae (Kuwana) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a new record from India.  Zoos Print Journa,. 20(7): 1933.

The genus Parabemisia Takahashi is thought to be native to the oriental and Austro-oriental regions, and currently there are five described species (Martin, 1999). Meganathan and David (1994) reported the occurrence of this genus in India by describing P. sairandhryensis.  The present study revealed the occurrence of P. myricae in Western ghats of southern India on Wendlandia thrysolidea (Rutaceae).  The details of this species and a key to the Indian species of Parabemisia are presented in this paper.

  • Sundararaj, Raja Muthukrishnan and O.K. Remadevi. (2005).  Annotated list of insect pests  of Pongamia pinnata (L). Pierre in India. Annals of Forestry 13(2): 337-341.

A checklist of insects infesting Pongamia pinnata in India in given in this paper. It includes 64 species of insects representing 21 families under six orders and one species of mite belonging to the Family Eriophyiidae of the Order Acarina.

  • Veeranna, R., and O.K. Remadevi. (2005). Efficacy of the entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis indica, in biocontrol of the teak heartwood borer, Alcterogystia cadambae (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Cossidae). Biotechnological management of nematode pests and scope of entromophahogenic nematodes. 180-184.

The teak heartwood borer, Alcterogystia cadambae (Moore) causes very severe damage to the teak timber leading to spoiling the market worth of teak in Karnataka, mainly in Haliyal and Yellapura divisions of North Canara circle.  Since the pest feeds while concealed inside the tree trunk, the application of synthetic chemical pesticides is not likely to be effective.  There is need to consider alternative options like biocontrol agents, which can search for an attack the pest inside the wood.  In the present study the entomo-pahogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis indica,  when applied at a dose of 200 ijs (infective juveniles) and 400 ijs, caused 50% larval mortality of first to fifth instar larval stages of A. cadambae by 48 hours  and 100% mortality by 72 hours in the laboratory bioassay.  Higher doses of 600 ijs to 800 ijs to 800 ijs caused 87.5% and sponge method, the nematode solution could be applied to the borer affected area in the infested teak tree, resulting in larval mortality. This method appears useful for the biocontrol of the pest in field conditions.

  • Anil Kumar Dubey, and R. Sundararaj. (2005). A taxonomic study of the genus pealius quaitane & baker (Homoptera: aleyrodidae) in India. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 102(2) : 162-165.

Martin (1999) concluded that Odonataleyrodes Takahashi was a junior synonym of Pealius and Odontaleyrodes. The study confirmed the observation of Martin (1999) that the two genera are congeneric.  Hence, O. indicus David, O. elongatus David et al. O. nilgriiensis David, O. sairandhryensis Megananthan and  David and O. splendens David et al . are assigned to the genus Pealius quaitance Baker.  Further, examination of the type specimens of O.artocarpi (David et al) O. selvakumarani (David et al) and Pealius nagerkoilensis  Jesudasan and David revealed that they are identical in their taxonomic characteristic features, it was concluded that these species are synonymous.  In the light of these findings a revised key to the genus Pealius has been provided.

  • Venmalar, D, and H.C. Nagaveni. (2005). Evaluation of copperised cashew nut shell liquid and neem oil as wood preservatives.  Paper presented  for the Annual meeting at Bangalore.  IRG/WP 05-30368.

An effort has been made to develop eco friendly wood preservatives using naturally available plant byproducts with less toxicity.  Copper was incorporated into Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) and Neem seed oil.  Rubber wood samples were treated with these solutions employing dipping and pressure techniques with different levels.  These samples have been evaluated to find out the effectiveness as wood preservatives against decay fungi and termites.  The combinations of copper and CNSL and copper and Neem in pressure treatment have resulted in discernibly high protection against wood rotters and termites.

  • Dubey, A.K. and R. Sundararaj. (2006). Distinctaleyrodes setosus Dubey and Sundararaj (Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodidae), a new whitefly genus and species from India.  Zootaxa 1154: 35-39.

Distinctaleyrodes setosus Dubey and Sundarraj gen. et sp. nov (Hemiptera:  Aleyrodidae) found on Derris sp. from Kudremukh National Park in Karnataka state of India is described and illustrated .  This species is unique in the grossly swollen form of the major dorsal setae.

  • Raji, and O.K. Remadevi. (2005). Entomofaunal diversity in the mangrove forest of west coast (South India). Annals of Forestry 13(2): 323-331.

Mangrove fauna is diverse with an abundance of invertebrate forms.  However, work on the insect community of mangroves in the Indian mainland, especially along the west coast, is patchy. The present study has therefore been carried out on insect diversity in mangrove forest along the west coast and a comprehensive list of insects prepared for the first time from this region.  A total of 341 species of insects belonging to 122 Families of 11 Orders have been recorded.  Of this, 201 have been identified up to generic level. The Orders Coleoptera, Diptera and Lepidoptera constituted the major groups in the collection. The taxonomic composition of the insect community has also been analysed.

  • Sundararaj, R. (2005). Species diversity of whiteflies (Aleyrodidae: Homoptera) in India.    Paper presented in the workshop Biodiversity: Life to our mother earth edition.

Whiteflies comprise a single hemipterous Family, Aleyrodidae, and they are economically important as sap sucking insects infesting a wide range of host plants. The taxonomy of whiteflies is based on nymphal characters, which have great advantage because of the sessile nature of the puparium and it is possible to collect and identify host plants with the speices of whitefly. In India, the family Aleyrodidae is represented by two subfamilies, Alerodinae and Aleurodicinae, comprising 290 species under 57 genera. Among them several species are economically important as pests of crops, ornamental plants and forestry plants.  In addition, a few Indian whiteflies are reported to exhibit phenotypic plasticity and hence there is a need for the study of large number of specimens associated with different hosts to establish species status of whiteflies.

  • Remadevi, O.K., and T. Rajany. (2005). Tasar culture for tribal welfare and sustainable utilization of forest trees-s status and prospects. Paper presented  Commonwealth Forestry Conference Colombo, Srilanka.

Tropical tasar cocoon is spun by a sericigenous insect,  Antheraea mylitta, which feeds on many forest trees.  For many decades, tasar culture has been a forest-based industry practiced by tribals and poor people in the northern states of India.  India has a vast tasar food flora, but only 5% are presently put to use for tasar rearing.  Recently attempts were made to extend tasar culture to central and southern states.  South Indian states like Karnataka and Kerala also have many species of food plants, but tasar culture as a tribal activity does not exist in these states.  To explore its prospects in the south Indian states, extensive surveys were conducted and the existence of tasar silk worms on many species of food plants was ascertained. Successful rearing of a new race of tasar from Kerala was conducted with a view to promote tasar culture as a joint forest management activity

  • Remadevi, O.K, H.C. Nagaveni, Raja Muthrukrishnan and G.Vijayalakshmi. (2005).Natural resistance of wood of Cleistanthus Collinus (Roxb.) Benth and Hook against wood decay fungi and termites. Journal of Indian Accademy  of Wood  Science (N.S.) 2:2: 2005.

The natural resistance of the wood of Cleistanthus collinus (Roxb.) Benth and Hook against wood rotting fungi was studied by laboratory bioassay (IS 4873-1968) and against termites by field tests (IS 4833-1968).  The results revealed that the wood blocks of heartwood of C.collinus are very resistant to decay fungi (both brown and white rots) with a mean weight loss of less  than 6%; whereas the weight loss of sapwood varied with the brown and white rot fungi.  Based on the study, the heartwood can be grouped under class 1 and the sapwood varied with the brown and white rot fungi.  Based on the study, from heartwood of C.collinus exposed to termites in the field were totally free from termite attack served as controls were completely  destroyed within 6 months.  It can be ascertained that extractives present in the wood are responsible for the natural resistance of the timber to biological degradation by both fungi and termites.

  • Ram Kumar, K. Murali Mohan, and Y.B. Srinivasa. (2005). Gender Associated differences in number of larval instars in Opisina arenosella (Walker). Pest Management in Horticulture Ecosystem. 11(1):27-32.                

Prevailing confusion in the number of larval instars in Opisina arenosella led to the present investigation on its developmental biology with particular reference to the number and duration of larval instars, length, weight, head capsule width and the total amount of food consumed by the larvae. Results showed an interesting pattern where male larvae underwent seven instars while the females had eight developmental instars.  All the other parameters recorded were influenced by the presence of the eighth  instar in the females which led to an increased larval duration, length, weight and amount of food consumed.  The general implications of such gender associated differences have been briefly discussed

  • Nagaveni, H.C., G.Vijayalakshmi,  and S.S. Chauhan. (2005). Decay resistance of esterified  and oligo-esterified  rubberwood (Hevea Brasiliensis). Journal of Tropical Forest Science 17(4): 462-473.

Decay resistance of esterified  and oligoesterified  rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis)  Rubber wood samples were chemically modified using a two step reaction.  The wood was esterified with two different dicarboxylic acid anhydrides, namely, maleic anhydride and phthalic anhydride and subsequently treated with epichlorohydrin to obtain oligoesterfied wood.  The treated  wooden blocks were assessed for bio-resistance against white and brown rot fungi.  Maleic anhydride alone treated samples showed resistance only for the brown rot attack but failed to protect against the white rot fungi.  Except for the maleic anhydride treatment, other treatments showed a weight loss of less than 10%.  All these treatments can be taken  as effective treatments for rubberwood.  However,  the best effect was shown in the combination of phthalic anhydride and epichlorohydrin.  This technique was found to be promising as an environmental friendly method to protect ruberwood against decay fungi and to provide dimensional stability required for better uses of timber.  This treatment helps to promote the use of low quality timber such as rubber wood, which is a cheaper alternative to primary timber.

  • Shankaranarayana K.H. and Vineet Kumar (1955), Structure and Industrial  application of TEMD, Research and Industry, 40, 293-294.

Tetraethanol methylene diamine (TEMD) has been synthesisted by simple and economical method, and spectroscopically examined.  It has been found to possess antibacterial, antifungal and anti-termitic activities.  It can be exploited by industries engaged in antiseptic lotions, disinfectant sprays, anti- repellent formulations and other allied products.  It is economic, cost effective, safe and non toxic.

 

MARINE WOOD BIODETERIORATION

  • Cheriyan, P.V., M.V. Rao, R.V. Krishnan and V. Kuppusamy. 1988. Observations on the durability of twelve species of common Indian timbers treated with copper-chrome-arsenic in Cochin harbour waters.  J. Indian Acad. Wood Sci., 19 (1):53-62.

Results of tests conducted in Cochin harbour for 11 years on test panels of 12 species of timbers namely Bombax ceiba (Sourashtra and U.P), Mimusops sp., Artocarpus fraxinifolius, Chukrasia velutina, Abies pindrow, Calophyllum sp, Pterocarpus marsupium, Mesua ferrea, Hopea parviflora, Terminalia alata (Bihar and Bombay), Anogeissus latifolia and Lagerstroemia microcarpa (Coorg and Bombay) treated with CCA in two absorption levels of 16 kg/m3 (A1 series) and 32 kg/m3 (A2 series) along with untreated controls are presented.  The data were analyzed to assess the differences in the durability of untreated and treated panels; the advantage of higher doses of preservative treatment and the difference, if any, in the performance of same species obtained from two different localities.  The results are also compared with observations from other harbours. The results showed that some of the non-durable timbers, after treatment recorded better durability than treated durable timbers.  In treated condition, A. pindrow was found to be the best of the 12 species and the next was T. alata (Bombay) followed by T. alata (Bihar).  B. ceiba (Sourashtra), Calophyllum sp., P. marsupium, L. microcarpa (Bombay), B. ceiba (U.P), A. fraxinifolius, H. parviflora and A. latifolia.  In many cases, a given species in treated conditions was found to perform differently in different harbours.

 

Raju, G.J.V.J., K. Satyanarayana Rao and B. Viswanadham. (1988).  Recruitment of fouling bivalve, Mytilopsis sallei (Recluz), on metallic and nonmetallic surfaces at Visakhapatnam harbor, India. In: Marine Biodeterioration, advanced techniques applicable to the Indian Ocean (Eds.) Mary-Frances Thompson,R. Sarojini and R. Nagabhushanam, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi: 513-525.

Mytilopsis sallei (Recluz) has met with astonishing success at Visakhapatnam harbor since its introduction in the 1960s. It completely dominates the fouling communities in the inner harbor and is a source of grave concern.  In this paper, data obtained on the recruitment of this important fouling species on different substrata (timber, glass, asbestos, copper, aluminium, mild steel, brass, rubber, asphalt) are presented.  A 12-month panel study revealed that recruitment of this bivalve was heaviest on asbestos followed by timber and lightest on copper and brass, with the other substrata falling in the intermediate category.

  • Raghukumar, S., L.N. Santhakumaran and D. Chandra Mohan. 1988. Association of marine fungi on timber panels treated with preservatives.  In: Marine Biodeterioration: Advance Techniques applicable to Indian Ocean (eds) M.F. Thompson, R. Sarojini and R. Nagabhushanam, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi: 651-656.

Seven wood species (13 samples) untreated and treated with preservatives (copper- chrome- arsenate, copper-chrome-borate, creosote-fuel oil) were examined for fungal colonization following submergence in the Mandovi estuary for periods up to 36 months. All samples, except one, had fungi. Periconia prolifica was the most common, while Halosphaeria quadricornuta was generally observed on untreated panels. Preliminary experiments with the fungi Cirrenalia sp., Clavariopsis bulbosa and Arthrobotrys sp. on their tolerance to copper-chrome-arsenate indicated that these species could best tolerate the preservative at 20 ppt salinity, which is also the optimum salinity for their growth.  Growth was observed up to 0.05% copper-chrome-arsenate concentration in these fungi.

  • Santhakumaran, L.N. 1988a. Biodeterioration of wooden boats - A major problem facing marine fisheries.  J. Indian Fish. Assoc., 18: 275-282.

In India, the fishing industry alone incurs an annual loss of over 120 million rupees on account of biodeterioration of wooden fishing craft.  None of the timber species, currently in demand for boat building, possesses any natural bio-resistance and will be completely destroyed within 6 to 12 months.  Preventive measures against biodeterioration range from application of several indigenous formulations to metallic sheathings and pressure impregnation of wood with preservative chemicals. These methods do not provide lasting protection, as each has its own shortcomings and inadequacies.  The need for long-term research in the field of marine biodeterioration for improving the efficiency of currently known control measures, with emphasis on application of non-polluting biological methods, has also been stressed in the paper.

  • Santhakumaran, L.N. 1988b. On silent saboteurs and shipwrecks.  In: Marine Archaeology of Indian Ocean Countries. Proceedings of the First Indian Conference 12-15 October 1987 (Ed) S.R. Rao: 123-126.     

A historical review of literature on depredation of marine borers on wooden ships and on protective methods adapted from antiquity to modern times is presented.  Recorded history of early voyages are replete with accounts of ravages of marine borers on wooden ships, riddling their bottom planks to the extent of causing ship wrecks.  Even survival of sunken ships as wrecks depends on the mercy of wood-destroying agencies, which may turn these 'port-hole' of history into meaningless junks. The silent saboteurs involved in several early shipwrecks are the molluscan and crustacean borers, aided by bacteria and fungi.  An impressive array of combative arsenal was employed by man to prevent biodeterioration of wood.  These include deep-charring, coating with pitch, coal tar, whale oil and mustard oil with lime; scupper nailing ('filling'); sheathing with animal skin, hair, tarred paper, wooden boards (unprotected or soaked in coal tar, Ferrous sulphate, Copper sulphate or Lead monoxide), lead and copper sheets, neoprene-coated plywoods; painting with Copper oxide, Pentachlorophenol or Phenyl-arsenious oxide; cement-concrete and plastic casings and pressure-impregnation with wood preservatives (creosote, coal tar and fuel oil mixtures and copper-chrome-arsenic).  None of these imparts complete protection.  Marine archaeological investigations at known shipwreck sites should be, therefore, augmented to unearth invaluable historical data before they are lost to satisfy the insatiable appetite of the animal saboteurs of the sea.

  • Santhakumaran, L.N., R.V. Krishnan and V. Kuppusamy. 1988.  Investigations on the durability of pressure-treated timber against marine borer attack in Mandovi estuary, Goa. J. mar. biol. Ass. India, 29 (1&2): 148-153. 

Performance of 8 timber species (namely Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, Anogeissus latifolia, Lagerstroemia microcarpa, Mesua ferrea, Pterocarpus marsupium, Terminalia alata, Carapa molluccensis and Mangifera indica) against biodeterioration when pressure-treated with 3 preservatives (namely, Copper-Chrome-Arsenic (CCA), Copper-Chrome-Boric (CCB) and Creosote: Fuel Oil (50:50) mixture (CFO) and exposed in Mandovi estuary (Goa) for about 48 months, has been discussed. The untreated control panels were all badly damaged in less than 6 months and those treated with CCA (except panels of A. latifolia and P. marsupium) and CFO were heavily attacked within 13 months.  CCA-treated panels of A. latifolia at both absorptions (16 kg and 32 kg per m3) failed within 35 months.  Panels of P. marsupium with 16 kg per m3 of CCA were heavily destroyed in 18 months, whereas with 32 kg per m3 dosage they remained in excellent condition even after 48 months.  CCB-treated panels of M. indica suffered only negligible damage after 25 months, but underwent 12 to 45% destruction in 35 months

  • Santhakumaran, L.N.and T.S.S. Rao. 1988. Observations on the destruction of timber by marine borers along the Goa coast.  In: Marine biodeterioration:Advanced techniques applicable to the Indian Ocean, (Eds) Mary-Frances Thompson, R. Sarojini and R. Nagabhushanam, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi: 633-641. 

Biodeterioration of marine timber structures, fishing craft and living mangrove vegetation is quite severe along the Goa coast.  At least 14 species of borers have been recorded from this area.  The annual loss due to biodeterioration to the fishing industry alone is about 5 million rupees.  Borer attack is heavy throughout the year, highest in September to November and lowest in June to July.  The traditional protective coatings used by fishermen are ineffective in inhibiting borer incidence. Of the 60 timber species tested for their natural durability, all, including teak, were destroyed - particularly by Martesia striata - within 6 to 12 months, indicating the severity and magnitude of the problem.

  • Santhakumaran, L.N. and V.V. Srinivasan. 1988.  Marine wood-borers of Andaman-Nicobar Islands with notes on control measures and on their distribution along the east coast of India.  Mahasagar - Bull. Natn. Inst. Oceanogr., 21 (1): 13-21.   

Marine wood borers of Andaman-Nicobar islands, collected from destroyed timber structures, were: Bankia campanellata, B. gracilis, B. rochi. Nausitora dunlopei, N. hedleyi, Nototeredo edax, Spathoteredo obtusa, Dicyathifer manni, Lyrodus pedicellatus, Teredo furcifera and Martesia striata Of these, B. gracilis, is a new record from Indian waters and S. obtusa is reported for the first time since it was first recorded from Nicobar in 1945. Faunal composition of marine wood-borers of Andaman-Nicobar islands and east coast of India are compared.  Of the 25 species (i.e., 14 Teredinidae, 2 Pholadidae, 2 Sphaeromatidae and 7 Limnoriidae), so far reported from Andaman-Nicobar coasts, 18 species (12 Teredinidae and 2 each of Pholadidae, Sphaeromatidae and Limnoriidae) occur along the east coast of India.  B. campanellata, B. rochi, N. dunlopei, S. obtusa, D. manni, Bactronophorus thoracites, L. pedicellatus, T. furcifera, M. striata and Sphaeroma terebrans constitute the predominant marine borers of Andaman-Nicobar islands.  All these species (except S. obtusa), together with Bankia carinata and Sphaeroma annandalei, are important along the east coast of India.  The distribution patterns of these borers in different habitats (test panels, timber structures, logs and mangroves) and methods for controlling biodegradation of timber in Andaman waters are discussed

  • Satyanarayana Rao, K. and M. Balaji.  1988.  Biological fouling at Port Kakinada,Godavari Estuary, India. In: Marine Biodeterioration, advanced techniques applicable to the Indian Ocean (Eds) Mary-Frances Thompson, R. Sarojini and R. Nagabhushanam, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi: 551-574.          

Results of fouling investigations conducted for the first time at the fast developing intermediate port of Kakinada in Godavari Estuary, Andhra Pradesh during 1983-1984 are presented.  The fouling species collected from different structures and craft were identified and listed.  Several of the species are reported for the first time from the area and some are new records to the Bay of Bengal. The main species are the serpulid, Mercierella enigmatica, the barnacle, Balanus amphitrite, and the bryozoans, Electra bengalensis, Membranipora amoyensis, Alderina arabianensis and Victorella pavida.  Panel tests (timber and glass: short and long-term) were conducted at two selected stations (Station I: Kakinada Canal, port area; Station II: new fishing harbor) with widely differing hydrographical conditions.  The data obtained for one year are presented.  Variations in the nature and composition of the fouling communities were found between the two stations.  Station I, subjected to extreme salinity fluctuations, typically supported a low number of highly tolerant (estuarine) species, whereas a high number of species and a more complex community structure were found at the more stable Station II.  Data on seasonal settling patterns, fouling biomass fluctuations and growth rates of important species are given and relevant comparisons made with other Indian harbors.

  • Srinivasan V.V and D. Leela Vallabhan. 1988. Responses of molluscan borers to chemically treated and untreated timber of commercial importance.  In:Marine Biodeterioration. Advanced techniques applicable to the Indian Ocean. (Eds) Mary-Frances Thompson, R. Sarojini and R. Nagabhushanam, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi: 643-650.

Investigations were conducted on the durability of seven species of commercially important timber (Anogeissus latifolia; Lagerstroemia microcarpa; Terminalia alata; Mimusops sp.; Chukrasia velutina; Acrocarpus fraxinifolius; Bombax ceiba) in treated and untreated conditions in Madras harbour waters.  The rates of attack by molluscan wood-borers on the timber were determined.  The timber panels were pressure-treated with copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) or creosote: fuel oil mixture (CFO) (1:1) at two levels of absorption. At the end of five years, the resistance in untreated controls in decreasing order of attack by Teredo and Martesia striata was A. latifolia, L. microcarpa and T. alata.  In decreasing order of resistance, Mimusops sp., C. velutina, A. fraxinifolius and B. ceiba lasted only 12-18 months.  In the durable timber, CCA treatment at higher absorptions considerably improved durability.  Treatment with CFO (1:1), both in lower and higher absorptions greatly enhanced the durability of the durable timber.  A considerable increase of durability in non-durable timber was also observed.  The performance of non-durable timber was found to be equivalent to that of the naturally durable timber by treatment at higher absorptions of CFO (1:1). Results indicating the timber showing better natural resistance and preservatives recording better performance with reference to availability and uses of the tested timber are discussed.

  • Satyanarayana Rao, K., M. Saraswathi and P.V. Bhavanarayana. 1988.  Entoprocta in the fouling communities at Visakhapatnam harbor, Bay of Bengal.  In: Marine Biodeterioration, advanced techniques applicable to the Indian Ocean (Eds) Mary-Frances Thompson, R. Sarojini and R. Nagabhushanam, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi: 57-79.

Entoprocta remains one of the poorly investigated marine invertebrate groups encountered in the fouling communities. There have been no reports of "fouling" entoprocts from the Indian region and, in general, there is an extreme paucity of information on the Indian species even from other situations. The latest comprehensive work on the group from India is approximately 70 years old.  Its systematics is in a chaotic state and huge gaps exist in the knowledge of its ecology and biology.  During the course of an investigation on marine biofouling at Visakhapatnam, it was noticed that entoprocts are an important component - especially in the early stages of development - of test block communities.  As many as five species belonging to the families Pedicellinidae and Urnatellidae - Pedicellina cernua (Pallas), Barentsia gracilis (M. Sars), B. discreta (Busk), B. ramosa (Robertson), Loxosomatoides laevis (Annandale) - were found in the present study.  Of these, B. ramosa is a new record for the Indian Ocean region and B. gracilis is reported for the first time from Indian waters.  P. cernua is a new record for the Bay of Bengal.  All these species are new locality records for Visakhapatnam.  Brief descriptions of the species encountered employing modern terminology, measurements of taxonomically important meristic characters and notes on their distribution are provided and the species illustrated.  Data on seasonal occurrence, abundance and growth rates for important species are given and their role in fouling discussed.  The study indicates that these organisms are probably more common in fouling communities than was generally thought in the past - a view that is increasingly gaining support in recent years. 

  • Leela Vallabhan, D. 1989. Studies on the physiology of digestion in the isopod Sphaeroma walkeri 1. Digestive enzymes.  Comp. Physiol. Ecol., 14 (3):139-144.

Enzymes indicated reaction in caeca, but not in hindgut.  Some of the enzymes indicated only traces of reaction in foregut and midgut, but other enzymes indicated no reaction therein.  pH in midgut was 6.3 or 6.4 and in ventrical caeca was 6.0 or 6.1, whereas in foregut it was 6.7 or 6.8 and in hindgut 6.9 or 7.0.  

  • Santhakumaran, L.N., S. Udaya Bhaskar and J.C. Jain. 1989.  Natural durability of fifty species of Indian timber in Goa waters against marine wood-borers.  The Internat. Res. Group on Wood Preserv., Stockholm, Document No.IRG/WP/4150: 1-12.  

Results of the investigations on the natural durability of fifty species of Indian timber, based on data collected by exposing test panels at Betim near Panaji (Goa) continuously for a period of 11 months have been presented.  The study revealed that none of the timber species tested has any natural resistance at this locality and all the panels were completely destroyed within 11 months.  Details on the comparative durability based on reports of previous workers, have also been included together with comments on factors affecting the life of a timber in marine environments. 

  • Satyanarayana Rao, K., V.V. Srinivasan and M. Balaji. 1989.  Success and spread of the exotic fouling bivalve, Mytilopsis sallei (Recluz) in Indian waters.  In: Exotic Aquatic Species in India, Proceedings of the Workshop on Exotic Aquatic  Species in India, (Ed) M. Mohan Joseph, Asian Fisheries Society, Indian Branch, Mangalore, India: 125-127.

Mytilopsis sallei (Recluz) is an exotic bivalve, introduced to Indian waters in the late 1960's, presumably through ship fouling.  Since then, the species has met with an astounding success, gaining monospecific dominance in fouling communities in certain localities as at Visakhapatnam harbour.  The bivalve grows fast, is highly fecund, tolerates a wide range of environmental conditions and is capable of enormous build up of fouling biomass even upto 100 kg/m3/year.  It is, therefore, a major fouling pest and its incidence in any harbour is increasingly being viewed with grave concern.  In this paper, the success and spread of this species in Indian harbours is briefly outlined.

  • Turner R.D. and L.N. Santhakumaran. 1989. The genera Martesia and Lignopholas in the Indo-Pacific (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pholadidae). Ophelia, 30 (3): 155-186.

In this paper the descriptions of the bivalve genera Martesia Sowerby 1824 and Lignopholas Turner 1955 (Family Pholadidae, subfamily Martesiinae) are revised and extended.  Comparisons are made between these genera and with Diplothyra Tryton 1862, also included are key to the genera and species.  Martesia striata (Linnaeus 1758) and M. fragilis Verrill and Bush 1890, the two known species in the area are discussed and compared; a new species, Martesia (Particoma) nairi from India, Australia and Sarawak is described; Martesia fluminalis Blanford 1867 (=Lignopholas fluminalis (Blanford)) from Burma, India and Sarwak, for many years considered a synonym of L. rivicola (Sowerby 1849), is re-established and fully described; and a new species, Lignopholas chengii from Sarawak is introduced.  These revisions, new species and systematic changes, made possible by extensive field, laboratory and museum work since, 1970, are fully documented and illustrated.

 

  • Nittala S. Sarma, K. Satyanarayana Rao and B. Viswanadham. 1990.  Settling responses and progression in community development of selected macrofouling organisms to a recently isolated sponge metabolite, Herbacin, at Visakhapatnam harbour, Bay of Bengal.  In: Bioactive Compounds from Marine Organisms,(Eds) Mary-Frances Thompson, R. Sarojini and R. Nagabhushanam, Oxford  & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi: 341-350.

The paper deals with the results of exposure trials conducted with test coupons of Mangifera indica treated with herbacin, a recently described furanosesquiterpene isolated from the marine sponge, Dysidea herbacea at Visakhapatnam, Bay of Bengal. Seven species of fouling organisms common to the test site - the spirorbid, Neodexiospira pseudocorrugata, serpulids, Hydroides norvegica and Serpula vermicularis, bryozoans, Hippoporina americana and Bowerbankia gracilis and the hydroidø Laomedia bistriata - were selected to study their settling and growth responses to the compound.  In addition, information on such aspects as fouling build up, general progression of the community and growth of selected species is provided.  The study suggests that the sponge metabolite appears to exert an inhibitory influence on some species (L. bistriata, H. americana, H. norvegica, S. vermicularis) while acting as an attractant to others (B. gracilis, N. pseudocorrugata).  The barnacle, Balanus amphitrite seems to be unaffected by the compound.

  • Ramamurthi, R., K. Satyanarayana Rao, B. Jayasundaramma and V.V. Srinivasan.1990.    Biofouling at Krishnapatnam harbour - Preliminary observations and comparison with other harbours in Andhra Pradesh. J. Timb. Dev. Assoc.India, 36 (4): 32-40

Results of a first investigation on biofouling communities at Krishnapatnam harbour (Long. 80o10' to 80o16' E and Lat. 13o28' to 13o59' N), Andhra Pradesh, are presented.  As many as 28 species of fouling organisms are identified, the important species being Balanus amphitrite, Hippoporina americana and Perna viridis.  Recruitment pattern of these organisms was studied on short and long-term panels for a period of 6 months (May to October, 1987).  Fouling biomass varied between 4.0 to 28.0 kg/m3. Growth rates of important species are provided.   A comparison of biofouling at Krishnapatnam is made with other harbours in Andhra Pradesh.

  • Santhakumaran, L.N. 1990a. Some recent studies on marine wood biodeterioration along the coast of India.  In: Proceedings of IUFRO Symposium on Biodeterioration and Preservation of Wood in tropical countries, 19-5-1990, Rotorua, New Zealand: 1-19.

Occurrence and distribution of marine wood-borers along the Indian coast are presented. Of the 63 species recorded so far, 43 borer species occur along the west coast and 52 along the east coast.  Species, which are most widely distributed and destructive, are Bankia campanellata, Bankia carinata, Bankia rochi, Nausitora hedleyi, Dicyathifer manni, Lyrodus pedicellatus, Teredo clappi, Teredo furcifera, Martesia striata, Sphaeroma annandalei and Sphaeroma terebrans.  The extent of damage caused by these organisms to underwater wooden structures is emphasised with suitable illustrations.  Results on the natural durability of various species of Indian timber are summarised.  None of the timber species, so far tested, has any bioresistance and is rapidly destroyed by borers.  Considerable variations are observed in the natural durability of samples of the same timber species tested at different localities or even in the same area. Performance of preservative-treated timber against marine biodeterioration, comprising test panels of 37 timber species pressure-impregnated with 8 wood preservatives and exposed in Indian waters, is briefly discussed.  Panels of even non-durable timber, when treated with preservatives, resisted borer damage for periods several times its natural life.  Creosote, pure creosote, creosote: fuel oil and creosote-coal tar mixtures, copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) and copper-chrome-boric (CCB) were found very efficient in preventing borer destruction.  Reference to some important literature on the ecological, biological and physiological studies on the dominant wood-borers of India is also included.

  • Santhakumaran, L.N. 1990b.  Marine borer attack on the wrecks of a wooden ship off Dwaraka coast and the significance of such damage to archaeology. J. of Marine Archaeology, 1: 99-102. 

The paper deals with the marine wood-borers of Dwaraka coast, collected from damaged wood samples of a sunken ship.  The borer species identified are: Bankia campanellata Moll and Roch, Bankia carinata (Gray), Lyrodus medilobata (Edmondson), Lyrodus pedicellatus (Quatrefages), Lyrodus singaporeana  (Roch), Teredo clappi (Bartsch) and Martesia (Martesia) striata (Linnaeus).  The distributional records of these borers along the Indian coasts are given.  The need for augmenting archaeological excavations at known ship wreck sites has been emphasised in the light of the rapid destruction of submerged timber brought about by the marine wood-borers, so that precious historical data are not lost. 

  • Santhakumaran, L.N. and V.V.Srinivasan. 1990.  Natural durability of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) under marine condition.  Rubber Board Bull., 25 (4): 22-24.   

Wood from Hevea brasiliensis (Wild. ex Adr. de Juss.) Muell. Arg. (rubber-wood) is widely used at present in packing cases, match industry and also as fire-wood.  This plantation raw material is now available in large quantities.  However, for the effective utilisation of this timber, steps should be taken to diversify its uses as a construction material including in marine structures.  The present paper deals with the natural durability of rubber-wood against marine borers in Goa waters.  Test panels of rubber-wood were completely destroyed within a short period of seven months due to severe attack by marine borers indicating their very low natural resistance.  Wood-borers encountered were Martesia striata (Linnaeus), Nausitora hedleyi Schepman, Bankia rochi Moll, Lyrodus pedicellatus (Quatrefages) and Bankia campanellata Moll and Roch.  The need for improving the durability of rubber-wood by suitable preservation techniques for its potential use in various marine constructions is presented and high-lighted.

  • Satyanarayana Rao, K.  1990.  Macrofouling on the east coast of India: Some observations.  In: Marine Biofouling and Power Plants, Proceedings of the Specialists' Meeting on Marine Biodeterioration with reference to Power Plant Cooling Systems (Eds) K.V.K. Nair and V.P. Venugopalan, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam: 35-66.         

In India, studies on biofouling communities are restricted only to a few harbours. Even the 10 major harbours are not yet covered and very little is known of the 150 intermediate and several minor ports.  Along the east coast, Visakhapatnam and Madras harbours are perhaps the best investigated.  A vast stretch of coast remains virtually uninvestigated.  An attempt is made in this presentation to bring out salient features of macrofouling on the east coast of India.  Attention is drawn in the paper to the lacunae that exist in biofouling research and also the need for a multi-disciplinary approach for arriving at a better understanding of the complex but extremely important problem caused by biofouling.

  • Satyanarayana Rao, K. and M. Balaji. 1990.  Accumulation of copper by Mytilopsis sallei (Recluz), an important fouling bivalve at Visakhapatnam harbour.  Indian J. Comp. Anim. Physiol., 8 (2): 1-3.

Accumulation of copper by the fouling dreissinid bivalve, Mytilopsis sallei (Recluz) at concentrations ranging from 120 (mg/l to 1080 (mg/l was studied at different time intervals, i.e., 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours.  The results indicate that the bivalve is capable of accumulating high concentrations of copper, ranging from 50-72 (mg/g; 58-94 (mg/g; 69-105 (mg/g and 77-113 (mg/g at the above periods of exposure, respectively.  Accumulation was also found to be directly proportional to the concentration of copper in the medium. 

  • Santhakumaran, L.N. 1991. Natural resistance of twelve timber species to biodeterioration in Goa waters.  Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. India, 61 (B) I:49-57.  

Panels of twelve timber species were tested in Goa waters, continuously for periods ranging from three to nine months, so as to evaluate their natural durability against marine borers.  Timber species included are: Gyrocarpus jacquini, Mastixia arborea, Gironneira reticulata, Sterculia urens, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Ficus religiosa, Terminalia paniculata, Kydia calycina, Dalbergia retusa, Acacia catechu, Vitex altissima and Bambusa sp.  All these species except T. paniculata were heavily destroyed within three to nine months, particularly due to the attack by Martesia striata.  Panels of T. paniculata, although harboured few M. striata, were quite resistant especially to teredinids. Other important borers present were Nausitora hedleyi and Lyrodus pedicelltus.  Results have been compared with those in previous reports from other localities.  Growth-rate attained by borers in different timber species has been discussed in relation to the size of the panels.  Chemical aspects of natural bioresistance, demonstrated by D. retusa, have also been discussed and the importance of such studies on the protective wood constituents present in T. paniculata, with a view to developing environmentally acceptable, non-polluting methods of wood preservation under marine conditions, has been highlighted. 

  • Santhakumaran, L.N., V. Kuppusamy and V.V. Srinivasan. 1991.  Marine wood-borers of Dwaraka, Lakshadweep and Porto Novo waters, with distribution pattern of all species recorded from India.  Proc. Nat. Acad.Sci. India, 61(B) IV:491-499.  

The paper reports the occurrence of twenty-three species of marine wood-borers from Dwaraka and Lakshadweep along the west coast and from Porto Novo along the east coast of India.  Lyrodus medilobata and Teredothyra matocotana are recorded for the second time from Indian waters and for Bankia rochi this is the only report of its occurrence along the stretch of coast line from Mangalore to South of Krishna estuary.  A note on the destruction of timber used for aquaculture of Killai Fish-Farm near Porto Novo has been included, so also a check-list of all marine wood-borers so far recorded from India (63 species) together with their distributional pattern along the Indian coast.  Eleven of the species given in check list are widely distributed and are quite destructive to under-water timber structures along the Indian coasts. 

  • Santhakumaran, L.N. and V.V.Srinivasan. 1991. Biological destruction of timber in use and during storage under marine conditions.  Wood News (Bangalore), 1 (3): 10-13.           

Timber used for various underwater marine structures such as fishing boats, jetty piles, stakes, floating fender, etc. and stored in log-ponds along the coast is prone to rapid biodeterioration.  The diverse animal groups which are responsible for the destruction are fungi, bacteria, bivalve molluscs of families Teredinidae and Pholadidae and members of the crustacean families Sphaeromatidae and Limnoriidae.  The combined action of the wood-borers with their highly specialised adaptations for boring into wood and leading a sedentary life, causes enormous damage to timber.  The annual loss involved to the fishing industry alone for providing protective measures against biodeterioration is over 250 million rupees.Methods to combat biodeterioration of timber in marine conditions range from indigenous coating formulations and protection through a mechanical barrier to pressure impregnation with wood preservatives.  Of these, pressure treatment is the most effective.  For protecting timber stored in log-ponds, methods like poisoning the neighbouring water with sodium arsenite, wrapping the logs with plastic sheets or CCA-treated coir rope or plastering with an extremely thin layer of cement or a bituminous compound or even bark protection are recommended.  Even the best methods sometimes fail due to one reason or the other and marine wood biodeterioration continues to be a serious problem.  Search for effective and long-lasting control measures is, therefore, essential for the effective utilisation of timber under marine conditions.

  • Satyanarayana Rao, K. and M. Balaji. 1991.  Effect of copper on oxygen consumption of the marine fouling dreissinid bivalve, Mytilopsis sallei (Recluz). Ibid., 9 (1): 19-22. 

Effect of different concentrations of copper on the oxygen consumption of the fouling bivalve, Mytilopsis sallei (Recluz) was studied.  A decrease in the oxygen consumption was noticed with an increase in the copper concentration.  The percentage decrease of oxygen consumption in different copper concentrations compared to control is also given.

  • Leela Vallabhan, D. 1992.  Total nitrogen content of wood-boring and fouling isopods.  Ibid., 17 (4): 123-126.  

The total nitrogen contents of an isopod borer, Limnoria indica and isopod foulers, Sphaeroma walkeri and Cirolana fluviatilis, during different moult cycle stages have been reported.  Marked fluctuations in the total nitrogen content were observed during different stages of moult cycle in C. fluviatilis and similar pattern of changes was also noticed in S. walkeri.  In the wood-borer L. indica, the total nitrogen content showed a decrease with increase in body weight as reported in the case of the molluscan wood-borer, Martesia fragilis.

  • Rao, M.V. and R.V. Krishnan. 1992.  Resistance of copper-chrome-boric treated timber to marine borer attack in Cochin harbour waters.  J. Indian Acad. Wood Sci., 23 (1): 29-32.     

Among the water-borne fixed type wood preservative Copper-Chrome-Boric (CCB) is not sufficiently tested for use in marine environment.  Because CCB is cheap and environmentally safe, an attempt was made to evaluate its efficacy in Cochin harbour region.  CCB solutions of 2.0%, 3.5% and 5.0% concentrations were tried in the test using mango (Mangifera indica) panels.  While the untreated panels were destroyed beyond 50% in a short span of 6 months, the treated ones lasted for 1 to 4 years.  The results are discussed and compared in the light of the reports available from other regions and potential of CCB in resisting biodeterioration of timber under marine conditions is highlighted.

  • Santhakumaran, L.N.  1992a.  The saga of the shipworms in early navigations.  In: Marine Archaeology of Indian Ocean Countries.   (Ed) S.R. Rao: 163-166

Shipworms as destroyers of timber, par excellence, in the marine environment are well  known from very ancient times.  They attacked the wooden hulls of ships in such intensity that the weakened bottom planks broke up even due to a mild impact caused by hitting on a rock or any floating object. This leads to catastrophic leaks resulting in the ultimate disappearance of the ship even in comparatively calm seas. The paper presents an account of the unhappy encounters between early navigators and marine wood-borers and some interesting anecdotes, compiled from a survey of literature upto the nineteenth century.  As many as 17 references have been cited.  The seriousness with which early mariners faced the problem of biodeterioration and the scare the wood-borers created in their minds have been brought to light, with, in some cases, excerpts from their journals and books.  The instances referred to are, among others, the voyages of Christopher Columbus, Sir Richard Hawkins, Sir Francis Drake, Francois Cauche, Dampier and Captain James Cook.  The anxiety and concern for protecting the ships from the ravages of wood-borers and for their own safety, as evidenced from their accounts, are discussed.  Based on the information gathered from recorded history, it is suggested that marine borers were instrumental in inducing early shipwrecks, thereby enriching the materials for marine archaeological excavations and studies.

  • Santhakumaran, L.N. 1992b. Natural resistance of twenty timber species in Goa waters against marine borers.  Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci, India, 62 (B) I: 23-30

The present communication deals with data on the natural durability of twenty timber species against marine borers collected by exposing test panels at Betim near Panaji (Goa), continuously for a period of 135 to 165 days.  The results indicate that none of the timber species except Madhuca longifolia, possesses any natural bioresistance in Goa waters, having undergone destruction ranging between 55% to 85% just after exposure for such a short period of about five months.  M. longifolia suffered only 15% internal destruction and the borers present in it were extremely small.  Destruction of the test panels was exclusively due to the attack by Martesia striata though few specimens of Nausitora hedleyi, Bankia campanellata, Bankia rochi and Lyrodus pedicellatus were also present in some of them.  The results, when compared with those collected by previous investigators from other localities along the Indian coast, indicate the extreme severity of the hazard of marine wood biodeterioration along Goa coast, as some of the timber species are reportedly more durable in other places from where data are available.  Factors responsible for such variations in durability of the same timber species at different localities are also briefly discussed.

  • K.Santhakumaran, L.N and M.V. Rao. 1992a.  Occurrence of wood-boring pholads in Kochi harbour waters (South-west coast of India).  The Internat. Res. Group on Wood Preserv., Stockholm, Document No. IRG/WP/4175-92: 1-9.   

The paper reports the occurrence of four species of wood-boring pholads (Pholadidae: Martesiinae), namely Martesia (Martesia) striata (Linnaeus), Martesia (Martesia) fragilis Verrill and Bush, Martesia (Particoma) nairi Turner and Santhakumaran and Lignopholas fluminalis (Blanford), in the Kochi backwaters, south-west coast of India.  Of these, M. nairi and L. fluminalis are now recorded for the first time from the area, the former having been collected from test panels of Spondias mangifera, Gyrocarpus asiaticus, Anogeissus latifolia, Terminalia alata and Hevea brasiliensis and the latter from panels of Pinus roxburghii.  For M. nairi, which is hitherto known only from the mangrove habitat (where it causes extensive damage to vegetation) and rarely from underwater wooden structures, this is the first record in India from test panels exposed outside the mangrove areas. A brief comparison of these pholads and notes on their occurrence and distribution along Indian coast are also included.

  • Santhakumaran, L.N and M.V. Rao. 1992b.  Natural durability of some common  Indian timbers and marine plywood against biodeterioration in Kochi waters  (India). The Internat. Res. Group on Wood Preserv., Stockholm, Document  No. IRG/WP/4177-92: 1-16

Panels of thirty-eight timber species and marine plywood were tested in Kochi harbour (South-west India) for periods ranging from 3 to 21 months, so as to evaluate their natural resistance against marine borers.  Results indicate that all the timber species studied are non-durable, 6 of them having undergone more than 50% internal destruction within 3 months; 14 species in 6 months, 13 species in 9 months; 2 species in 15 months and 1 species each within 12, 18 and 21 months.  The marine plywood reached 50% damage within 12 months.  Timber species, which demonstrated comparatively high degree of durability, were Hopea parviflora, Terminalia paniculata, Terminalia crenulata, Aglaia roxburghiana and Xylia xylocarpa.  Destruction was caused mainly by Martesia striata (Linnaeus) and Nausitora hedleyi Schepman, though few specimens of Sphaeroma terebrans Bate, Sphaeroma annandalei Stebbing and Martesia nairi Turner and Santhakumaran were also encountered.  A discussion on the results in the light of reports of previous workers is also included.

  • Santhakumaran, L.N., K. Satyanarayana Rao and V. V. Srinivasan. 1992.  Performance of teak (Tectona grandis Linn.f.) in marine exposure trials in  Indian waters and some aspects of its utilisation.  In: Proceedings, International Symposium on teak, Tiruvanthapuram: 1-21.

Teak (Tectona grandis) is the most preferred timber for use under marine and brackish-water conditions in India - in boat and ship building, construction of fixed and floating harbour structures and for several other uses.  Phenomenal hikes in its price, coupled with widening supply-demand gap, necessitate an urgent rational approach to its utilisation and conservation.  Against this background, results on the performance of teak in marine exposure trials conducted at various localities along the Indian coasts over the past three decades are examined with a view to providing suggestions for its proper utilisation.  Aspects covered include brief discussion on the principal marine borer species damaging teak, virulence of their attack and the resistance of teak to biodeterioration in the untreated condition as well as after preservative treatment.  Timber species that are more durable than teak under marine conditions have been listed.   Many of these species, being cheaper and easily available, are potential substitutes for teak, especially in the construction of simple structural units (eg. jetty piles).  However, in the fabrication of composite structural units (with member components subjected to divergent stresses as in boat-building), monospecific substitution may not be possible, as the suggested 'secondary species' are not as versatile as teak.  In such cases, multi-species usage is recommended.   Pressure treatment with preservatives like Copper-Chrome-Arsenic (CCA), Copper-Chrome-Boric (CCB) and Creosote - Fuel oil (50:50) mixture was found to enhance the durability of several inferior varieties of timber species to the level of or even better than teak, indicating the immense potential for the commercialisation and popularisation of the protective technologies involved in the best interest of rational utilisation and conservation of already depleted timber resources.  However, introduction of preservative-treated timber in plank-built designs poses certain problems and the technological gaps that need be filled up are discussed.  The pattern of current use of teak in marine constructions and its future in the changing context are also discussed.

  • Santhakumaran, L.N and A.P. Singh. 1992. Destruction of two tropical timber by marine borers and micro-organisms in Goa waters (India).  The Internat. Res.Group on Wood Preserv. Stockholm, Document No. IRG/WP/4176: 1-27. 

The paper deals with the pattern of microbial attack in relation to marine borer damage of test panels of African rosewood and Brazilian jackwood exposed in Goa waters (Western India) for a period of seven months.  The degradation of wood cell walls in both the timber samples occurred due to infestation of soft-rot fungi and tunnelling bacteria.  African rosewood, which was severely damaged by teredinids and pholads, was also heavily degraded by both soft-rot fungi and tunnelling bacteria.  In contrast, Brazilian jackwood, which effectively resisted teredinids and was only mildly attacked by pholads, was also less severely degraded by the above microorganisms.  Thus, the study demonstrates a close parallel between the activity of marine borers and wood-degrading microorganisms present in the cell walls of the wood samples examined.

  • Santhakumaran, L.N., G. Srimannarayana and K. Nagaiah. 1992.  Natural resistance of twenty-five timber species to marine borer attack in Goa waters (India). The Internat. Res. Group on Wood Preserv. Stockholm, Document No.IRG/WP/4178-92: 1-10. 

Natural durability of 25 species of Indian timbers has been discussed, based on data collected from test panels exposed in Goa waters (west coast of India) for a period of 7 months.  All the timber species, except Cleistanthus collinus, were heavily destroyed within 7 months on account of the combined attack by Martesia striata (Linnaeus) and Lyrodus pedicellatus (Quatrefages).  C. collinus, though harboured numerous M. striata, did not suffer internal damage (only less than 2%), as the growth of borers was very much restricted.  This is attributed to the presence of certain lignan-lactone glycosides like Cleistanthin-C and Cleistanthin-D in the wood. Similarly, species like Wrightia tomentosa and Lannea coromandelica were destroyed exclusively by M. striata, indicating the presence of chemicals poisonous to shipworms.  The results have been compared and discussed with those reported by previous workers.

  • Satyanarayana Rao, K.  1992.  Breeding and seasonal abundance of intertidal bryozoa (ectoprocta) at Visakhapatnam, Bay of Bengal.  Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 62 (B) IV: 535-541.

Observations on breeding and seasonal abundance of 22 species of open coast Bryozoa (Ectoprocta) at Visakhapatnam, Bay of Bengal (Long 17o40'30" N; Lat 83o16'25" E) are presented of which Electra tenella, E. pilosa, Thalamoporella gothica var indica, T. stapifera, Steginoporella buskii, Hippopetraliella magna, Rhynchozoon globosum, Pherusella tubulosa and Bowerbankia sp. are the most common.  Detailed quantitative studies were carried out on these 9 common and distinctive species.  Breeding in the bryozoan community under consideration was observed to be continuous and for most of the species higher abundance was recorded in March-May and again in October-December.  The abundance of epiphytic species like E. pilosa, however, appears to be greatly influenced by the biological cycle and sequence of development of the algal substrata.

  • Satyanarayana Rao, K., M. Balaji and V.V. Srinivasan. 1992.  Use of bamboo at Lake Kolleru, Andhra Pradesh-A fishery dominated wetland ecosystem: Some observations. Proceedings of National Seminar on Bamboo, Bamboo Society of India, Bangalore: 97-103

The Kolleru Lake ecosystem in Andhra Pradesh (81o5' to 81o20' E and 16o57' N) is an invaluable wetland habitat with a water spread of 674 sq. km., which has considerable economic, cultural, scientific and recreational value.  It supports a population of 2 lakhs of people in its 46 bed (island) and 76 belt (bordering) villages.  The prime occupation of especially the people in the 'bed' villages is fishing.  Besides conventional capture fishing, considerable scope exists for aquaculture operations in the identified 2.8 sq. km. of wasteland in and around the lake, which is currently being tapped.  An enormous quantity of lignicolous materials, especially bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus, D. hamiltonii, Bambusa arundinaria, etc.) is currently being utilised in fishing operations for diverse purposes, the most striking of which being the unique fencing screens - locally called 'Dadikattus' (Telugu) that may run even upto to 10 km in length.  It is also extensively used in packing, transportation operations apart from a number of other miscellaneous purposes.  Annual requirement of bamboos in the lake is estimated to be around 30 lakh numbers. The bamboo is subjected to biodeterioration - microbial degradation in freshwater areas and additionally, by boring organisms like Martesia striata, Sphaeroma spp. and teredinids in the areas with saline incursion.  Losses due to replacement/repairs are enormous and for maintenance the fishermen spend as much as 25% of their total income.  This paper while highlighting the importance and role of bamboo in the economy of Kolleru Lake inhabitants that may typically reflect the conditions in such fishery dominated wetland systems in other parts of the country also, stresses the need for its rational utilization and discusses the technical and other inputs required to achieve the same.

  • Srinivasan. V.V. 1992. Research activities on marine Wood Biodeterioration in Indian waters. The Internat. Res. Group on Wood Preserv. Stockholm, Document No. IRG/WP/4182-92: 1-16.

The paper attempts to present an overview of the work done on marine Wood Biodeterioration conducted at the coastal centres (at Bombay, Goa, Cochin, Madras and Visakhapatnam) of Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Bangalore.  Aspects briefly covered are (1) hydrographical conditions (data not given for Goa); (2) major fouling and boring organisms; (3) marine fungi; (4) natural resistance of indigenous timbers; (5) efficacy of wood preservatives in the control of marine borer attack and (6) service of treated timber structures.

  • Santhakumaran, L.N., S. Chinnaraj and G. Surekha Sawant. 1993.  Lignicolous marine fungi from panels of different timbers exposed along Goa coast (India).  The Internat. Res. Group on Wood Preserv. Stockholm, Document No. IRG/WP/93-10037: 1-16.      

Colonisation by marine fungi on panels of thirty species of Indian timbers, ten species of imported timbers, marine plywood (coated with polyurethane as well as uncoated) and also on panels of five timber species treated with Copper-Chrome-Arsenic (CCA) and Copper-Chrome-Boric (CCB) preservatives, was studied by exposing test blocks in the Mandovi estuary, Goa (West coast of India) for periods ranging from five to fifty one months.  Panels were installed both in a mangrove habitat (at Chorao), as well as in the estuary (at Betim).  Examination of the wood samples revealed the occurrence of atleast fourteen species of fungi.  Periconia prolifica, Lignincola laevis, Aniptodera sp. and Lulworthia sp. were common in panels exposed in the mangrove area, while P. prolifica, Halosphaeria quadricornuta and Humicola alopallonella were abundant in panels immersed in the estuary.  H. quadricornuta and P. prolifica were frequent in treated wood.  It was also found that CCA was more effective than CCB in preventing fungal infestation.  Fungal species diversity between the mangrove and non-mangrove areas and also between treated and untreated wood panels has been discussed, together with notes on the probable role of fungi in supporting specific wood-borers in the mangrove habitat.

  • Santhakumaran, L.N.  and V. V. Srinivasan. 1993.  Studies on the natural bioresistance of some Indian timbers in Goa waters. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. India,63 (B) III: 337-340.   

Natural durability of Diospyros ebenum, Chloroxylon swietenia, Eucalyptus tereticornis and marine plywood has been assessed and discussed, based on data collected by exposing test panels at Betim, near Panaji (Goa), continuously for periods ranging from 7 to 22 months.  Hevea brasiliensis, tested simultaneously, was taken as the reference species.  All the timber samples, except marine plywood, were heavily destroyed by shipworms and piddocks within 7 to 11 months.  Borer species observed were Martesia striata, Nausitora hedleyi and Lyrodus pedicellatus.  Marine plywood was only slightly damaged at the end of 18 months and suffered just 42% destruction in 22 months.  The damage in this case was exclusively due to the attack by M. striata.  The nature of biodeterioration of the timbers tested has been discussed in relation to borer population of the area.

  • Santhakumaran, L.N and Surekha G.Sawant.1993.Natural resistance of Bamboo (Bambusa sp.) to marine wood-borers in Goa waters (India).  The Internat. Res.Group on Wood Preserv. Stockholm, Document No. IRG/WP/93-10032: 1-6.          

The paper deals with the natural durability of Bambusa sp. against the attack of marine wood-borers in Goa waters.  Test specimens of this species were completely destroyed within a short period of nine months due to severe attack of borers indicating its very low natural resistance. Wood-borers involved are Martesia striata (Linnaeus), Nausitora hedleyi (Schepman ) and Lyrodus pedicellatus (Quatrefages.  The need for improving the durability of bamboo by suitable preservation techniques for its effective utilisation under marine conditions has been highlighted in the paper.

  • Satyanarayana Rao, K., L.N. Santhakumaran, M. Balaji and V.V. Srinivasan.  1993.Destruction of wood and mangrove vegetation by marine borers in Goutami-Godavari estuary, East Coast of India.  Internat. Res. Group on Wood Preserv., Stockholm,  Document No. IRG/WP 93-10021:  1-15.          

This paper deals with the nature and extent of destruction caused by marine boring organisms to wood and mangrove vegetation in the Goutami-Godavari estuary along the east coast of India.  Fifteen species, comprising of 11 teredinids, 1 pholad and 3 sphaeromatids were recorded from the area.  For the first time, seasonality of recruitment, abundance and growth were studied for important species occurring at 2 stations in port Kakinada, a fast developing intermediate port located in the estuarine system.  Bankia carinata (Gray) and B. campanellata Moll and Roch are dominant species at Station I, where low and fluctuating salinity conditions prevail.  At Station II, where more stable conditions exist, Teredo furcifera von Martens, Lyrodus pedicellatus (Quatrefages) and Martesia striata (Linne) are important.  In the mangrove area (of approx. 30,000 ha.), damage is mainly caused by Dicyathifer manni (Wright), Nototeredo edax  (Hedley), L. pedicellatus, B. campanellata and Sphaeroma annandalei( Stebbing).   Factors, especially salinity, which play a significant role affecting abundance and distribution of these organisms are discusse

  • Satyanarayana Rao, K., L.N. Santhakumaran, M. Balaji and V.V. Srinivasan. 1993. Natural resistance of rubber wood to marine borers and a preliminary note on the effect of preservative treatment.  Indian J. Nat. Rubber Res., 6 (1 and 2): 71-74.       

Results of exposure tests carried out on rubber wood at 3 Indian ports (Visakhapatnam and Krishnapatnam on the east coast and Goa on the west coast) are reported.  While untreated panels were tested at all the harbours, panels treated with CCA and CCB preservatives were tested at Visakhapatnam and Krishnapatnam.  The results indicate that rubber wood is highly perishable in untreated condition, having been completely destroyed by marine borers in only 4 - 6 months.  Treated panels fared well having undergone only negligible attack even after 24 months of exposure and are continuing in the field.  This study indicates that rubber wood could be suitably upgraded with preservative treatment to find application even in the rigorous marine environment.  Further tests are, however, necessar

  • Rao, M.V., R.V.Krishnan, V. Kuppusamy, C.J. Cherian and P.V. Cheriyan. 1994. Durability performance of 12 species of Indian timbers treated with creosote: fuel oil in Cochin harbour waters.  J. mar. biol. Ass. India, 36 (1 and 2): 290-293.

Durability of 12 species of Creosote: Fuel Oil (CFO) treated timbers (Bombax ceiba, Mimusops sp., Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, Chukrasia velutina, Abies pindrow, Callophyllum apetalum, Pterocarpus marsupium, Mesua ferrea, Hopea parviflora, Terminalia alata, Anogeissus latifolia and Lagerstroemia microcarpa) in Cochin Harbour is discussed in detail.  Compared with the natural durability all the treated panels demonstrated excellent life.  After 17 years of exposure tests also, as many as six species are continuing in the fileld.  Non-durable timbers viz. B. ceiba, A. fraxinifolius, C. velutina. Mimusops sp. and A. pindrow accomplished equal or superior durability like such durable species as C. apetalum, P. marsupium, M. ferrea, H. parviflora, A. latifolia  and  L. microcarpa, after CFO treatment.  A single species selected from different geographical localities exhibited no consistency in its performance either in untreated or treated condition.  Results of similar tests conducted at other harbours of the country when compared with the present ones revealed that the performance of a species after preservative treatement also may vary from one harbour to the other.

  • Santhakumaran, L.N. 1994. Natural durability of different timber species against marine borer attack in Indian waters.  In: Recent developments in Biofouling Control, (Eds) Mary-Frances Thompson, R. Nagabhushanam, R. Sarojini and M. Fingerman, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi: 345-360.              

This paper presents an overview of the investigations conducted in India on the natural durability of timbers under marine conditions.  Factors influencing durability in different localities are discussed and the need for studying the chemical aspects of durable timber species is emphasized.  The large numbers of borer species and the variations in intensity of dominant ones at different sites along the Indian coasts make the problem of wood biodeterioration a very complex one.  Important factors to be considered for comparative studies of natural durability are also presented.

  • Santhakumaran, L.N and M.V. Rao. 1994.  Natural durability of some common Indian timbers and marine plywood against biodeterioration in Kochi waters (India). J. Timb. Dev. Assoc of India, 40 (1): 40-53.

Panels of thirty-eight timber species and marine plywood were tested in Kochi harbour (South-west India) for periods ranging from 3 to 21 months, so as to evaluate their natural resistance against marine borers.  Results indicate that all the timber species studied are non-durable, 6 of them having undergone more than 50% internal destruction within 3 months; 14 species in 6 months, 13 species in 9 months; 2 species in 15 months and 1 species each within 12, 18 and 21 months.  The marine plywood reached 50% damage within 12 months.  Timber species which demonstrated comparatively high degree of durability were Hopea parviflora, Terminalia paniculata, Terminalia crenulata, Aglaia roxburghiana and Xylia xylocarpa.  Destruction was caused mainly by Martesia striata (Linnaeus) and Nausitora hedleyi Schepman, though few specimens of Sphaeroma terebrans Bate, Sphaeroma annandalei Stebbing and Martesia nairi Turner and Santhakumaran were also encountered.  A discussion on the results in the light of reports of previous workers is also included.

  • Santhakumaran, L.N and M.V. Rao. 1994.  Occurrence of wood-boring pholads in Kochi harbour waters (South-West Coast of India).  J. Timb. Dev. Assoc. of India, 40 (3): 29-37.

The paper reports the occurrence of four species of wood-boring pholads (Pholadidae: Martesiinae), namely Martesia (Martesia) striata (Linnaeus), Martesia (Martesia) fragilis Verrill and Bush, Martesia (Particoma) nairi Turner and Santhakumaran and Lignopholas fluminalis (Blanford), in the Kochi backwaters, south-west coast of India.  Of these, M. nairi and L. fluminalis are now recorded for the first time from the area, the former having been collected from test panels of Spondias mangifera, Gyrocarpus asiaticus, Anogeissus latifolia, Terminalia alata and Hevea brasiliensis and the latter from panels of Pinus roxburghii.  For M. nairi, which is hitherto known only from the mangrove habitat (where it causes extensive damage to vegetation) and rarely from underwater wooden structures, this is the first record in India from test panels exposed outside the mangrove areas. A brief comparison of these pholads and notes on their occurrence and distribution along Indian coast are also included.

  • Santhakumaran, L.N. and Surekha G. Sawant. 1994. Observations on the damage caused by marine fouling organisms to mangrove saplings along Goa coast.  J.Timb. Dev. Assoc. of India, 40 (1): 7-13.

The paper deals with the pattern of settlement of fouling organisms on saplings of Rhizophora mucronata planted along the southern banks of Mandovi River in Goa adjoining the Panaji-Rybandar Road.  Fouling organisms encountered were Balanus amphitrite, Saccostrea cucullata and Littorina sp.  All the saplings indicated settlement by foulers at the intertidal area of the stem.  Average percentage mortality was 42.5.  Mortality was found directly proportional to period of submergence.  Settlement of foulers and Siltation on the submerged crown leaves including the leaf buds and the trail of sticky viscous secretion on the leaves left by the gastropods interfering with photosynthetic activity of the saplings and the poisonous effects of the possible diffusion of chemicals present in the adhesive cement produced by foulers into the tender stem are supposed to be the causes for heavy mortality.  Remedial measures to be adopted so as to reduce the harmful effects of fouling on mangrove saplings during afforestation programme have also been suggested in the paper. This is the first illustrated report on the ill-effects of marine fouling on living mangrove vegetation.

  • Satyanarayana Rao, K. and M. Balaji. 1994.  Observations on the development of  test block communities at an Indian harbor.  In: Recent developments in biofouling control (Eds) Mary-Frances Thompson, R. Nagabhushanam, R.Sarojini and M. Fingerman, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi: 75-96. 

Observations on the progression of development of fouling communities at Visakhapatnam on the eastern coast of India carried out over a two-year period are presented.  The study was conducted at two stations, Station I and Station II, having widely differing ecological conditions.  While rapid colonization was a feature common to both stations, there were differences in the emergence of dominant species and sequence of events of community development.  In the polluted waters of Station I, the introduced bivalve, Mytilopsis sallei gained virtual monopoly within 30 days, almost eliminating all other species.  Dominance was shared by different species (spirorbids, bryozoans, barnacles, sponges, oysters) at different stages in the relatively cleaner waters of Station II.  Factors involved in community development such as new recruits, biological interactions and physical disturbances are discussed.  Because the dominance gained by some species in the community does not appear to involve an orderly or directional process that is predictable or involve modifications of the physical environment, it is argued that they should best be regarded as "multiple stable points" rather than "climax communities".  This appears to be applicable in many Indian, subtropical and other tropical harbours.

  • Satyanarayana Rao, K., L.N. Santhakumaran and V.V. Srinivasan.  1994. Performance of preservative treated timber in marine exposure trials in Indian harbors. In: Recent developments in biofouling control (Eds) Mary-Frances Thompson, R. Nagabhushanam, R. Sarojini and M. Fingerman, Oxford &IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi: 361-372.

Results of investigations on the performance of preservative treated timbers (38 species) in exposure trials (panel tests) carried out at Indian harbors are summarized.  Pure creosote, its solutions with coal tar and heavy petroleum, creosant, pentachlorophenol, copper resinate and copper-chrome-arsenic were tested in preliminary trials during 1957-1964.  With the exception of pentachlorophenol, all the preservatives offered resistance to borer attack in varying degrees.  Long-term extended tests (17 years) were also conducted with copper-chrome-arsenic; creosote: fuel oil (50:50) mixture and, in recent years, with copper-chrome-boric.  In these tests, the service life of several species was found to increase many fold after preservative treatment (some to 17 years), and even very nondurable timbers (eg., Bombax ceiba) were found to fare equally well or better than some of the naturally durable and much preferred species after preservative treatment.  However, performance of the preservatives was extremely variable.  There were differences not only among the same wood species at different harbors but also between samples from different regions.  Doubling the dosage absorption did not enhance the durability correspondingly.

  • Satyanarayana Rao, K. and M. Balaji. 1994.  Toxicity of copper to Mytilopsis sallei (Recluz) and some aspects of its control in Indian waters. In: Recent developments in biofouling control (Eds) Mary-Frances Thompson, R.Nagabhushanam, R. Sarojini and M. Fingerman, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co.Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi:  409-415.        

Results are presented of experiments conducted to study the toxicity of copper to Mytilopsis sallei (Recluz), a highly successful fouling bivalve at Visakhapatnam, Bay of Bengal. The LC50 values obtained indicate that the species is highly resistant to copper compared to several other bivalves.  None of the antifouling paints or wood preservatives presently used in India offers adequate protection against this species.  Chlorinated rubber-based paints containing tributyltin oxide fare relative better.   The adaptive strategies contributing to the success of M. sallei in Indian harbors are outlined.

  • Satyanarayana Rao, K., M. Balaji and V.V. Srinivasan. 1994.  Resistance of twenty-five species of timbers to marine borer attack at Visakhapatnam, east coast of India.  Internat. Res. Group on Wood  Preserv., Stockholm., Document No.IRG/WP 94-30036

Observations on the natural resistance of 25 species of timbers to marine borer attack for a twelve month period at the fishing harbour, Visakhapatnam, east coast of India, indicate that none of the species was free from borer attack.  The damage was mainly by the teredinids - Teredo furcifera and Lyrodus pedicellatus Martesia striata, Teredo parksi, Bankia campanellata and Lyrodus bipartitus were also recorded.  All the timber species tested were drawn from the same growing region - the state of Andhra Pradesh.  Of the species tested - Ailanthus excelsa, Albizia chinensis, Bombax ceiba, Bursera serrata, Careya arborea, Mangifera indica, Ougeinia dalbergioides, Thespesia populnea and Toona ciliata offered least resistance to borer attack. Anogeissus latifolia, Pterocarpus marsupium and Xylia xylocarpa exhibited maximum resistance followed by Lannea coromandelica, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Terminalia alata, Tectona grandis and Eucalyptus hybrid, other species falling in the intermediate category.  Present observations indicate the virulence of attack by teredinid wood borers in this area, where a large number of mechanized and traditional wooden fishing craft are in operation.  The need for proper utilization of some of these commercial timbers after preservative treatment is highlighted.

  • Balaji, M. and K. Satyanarayana Rao. 1996.  Behaviour of Mytilopsis sallei (Recluz) in copper pollution gradients at Visakhapatnam harbour, Bay of Bengal.  In:Readings in Behaviour (Ed) R.  Ramamurthi and Geethabali, New Age International Limited, New Delhi: 242-245.  

Mytilopis sallei (Recluz), an exotic bivalve, possibly introduced from Central America, has become a fouling pest causing severe operational problems to marine structures at Visakhapatnam Harbour.  The animal occurs throughout the inner harbour area, where a gradient of domestic and industrial pollution exists.  An analysis of the soft parts of M. sallei collected from three sites along the pollution gradient revealed a positive correlation of copper content in the tissues with that present in the ambient.  The results are discussed in the light of available literature.

  • Tharakanadha, B., S. Janardana Reddy, M. Balaji and R. Ramamurthi. 1997.Seasonal changes in the whole animal oxygen consumption of Mytilopsis sallei (Recluz).  J. Ecobiol., 9 (1): 3-7.   

Mytilopsis sallei is a dreissinid fouling bivalve inhabiting both marine and brackishwater environments of the Visakhapatnam harbour (Lat 17o41' N, Long 83o17'E), Andhra Pradesh, India, causing grave concern to port authorities and the Indian Navy since its introduction in 1967.  The whole animal oxygen consumption and unit metabolism of M. sallei was measured at four different seasons  (winter, summer, rainy, spring) of the year.  The metabolic rate showed an exponential relationship to body size and salinity.  The increased salinity of the media is considered as salinity stress in winter and summer seasons.  In these seasons, the animal withdraws itself into the shell or closes the valves and shifts to anaerobic metabolism to tide over the abnormal conditions in the environment.  The respiratory rate values obtained in this study would be useful for proper understanding of the impact of ecological stress on the metabolic index of M. sallei and other related species.  Maximal oxygen consumption was found during the spring season and minimal in summer season.

  • Balaji, M. and K. Satyanarayana Rao. 1998. Performance of ten species of timber in  Visakhapatnam harbour.  J. Timb. Dev. Assoc. of India, 54 (2): 23-26.

Exposure trials were conducted on ten species of timber grown in Andhra Pradesh to evaluate their resistance to marine wood-borer attack at Visakhapatnam.  The results are discussed in the light of available literature and the benefit of adoption of wood preservation technology in enhancing the service life of timber is outlined

  • Rao, M.V., L.N. Santhakumaran and K. Satyanarayana Rao. 1998.  Marine borer resistance of some chemically treated timber in Cochin waters (West coast,India).  J. Timb. Dev. Assoc of India, 44 (2): 27-35.

Copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) and Copper-chrome-boric (CCB) treated samples of Borassus flabellifer, Boswellia serrata, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Olea dioica and Toona ciliata were tested for their durability performance in Cochin waters.  As against a natural durability of 3 to 6 months, the five species lasted for periods ranging from 12 to 18 months, sustaining about 50% destruction, despite the very intense borer activity in this harbour.  Discrepancies noticed in the performance of treated timbers are discussed along with factors responsible

  • Balaji, M., M.V. Rao and K. Satyanarayana Rao. 1999.  Natural resistance of ten species of catamaran grade timber to marine wood borer attack at Visakhapatnam and Kochi harbours.  J. mar. biol. Assoc. India, 41 (1 and 2): 96-102.

The natural resistance of ten species of timber suitable for catamaran fabrication was evaluated at Visakhapatnam and Kochi harbours to suggest suitable substitutes to the conventional species as their availability is fast dwindling and prices are soaring up.  The results showed that none of the ten species exhibited any remarkable resistance against marine organisms attack.  The timbers lasted at the most for 9 months at Visakhapatnam and 7 months at Kochi.  While the destruction of panels at Visakhapatnam was caused exclusively by teredinids, that at Kochi was brought about by both teredinids and pholadids.  From the study, it is seen that preferred species did not offer any specific advantage over the underutilized species tested.  Therefore, it is emphasized that any timber species used for catamaran fabrication be treated with suitable chemicals so as to obtain long service life, saving of expenditure and conservation of forest wealth and its biodiversity

  • Balaji, M. and K. Satyanarayana Rao. 2000.  Size dependent bioaccumulation of heavy metals by Mytilopsis sallei (Recluz) at Visakhapatnam harbour. Indian J.Exp. Biol., 38: 405-407.

Relationship between body size and bioaccumulation of copper, zinc, lead and cadmium in the fouling bivalve, M. sallei (Recluz) in Visakhapatnam harbour was studied.  While concentration of copper, zinc and lead decreased with increasing size, no such relationship was observed for cadmium.

  • Balaji, M. and K. Satyanarayana Rao. 2001. Destruction of catamarans by marine wood borers at Pudimadaka, Andhra Pradesh, East Coast of India. Proc.Workshop on Forestry, Forest Products and Coastal Population, (Eds) K.Satyanarayana Rao, Surekha G. Sawant and Pankaj K. Aggarwal, Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Bangalore: 146-149.

Catamarans are the most extensively used traditional fishing craft along the east coast of India and constitute nearly 70% of the total traditional craft.  They are entirely made of wood.  The species of wood being used in fabrication of catamarans contains mostly sapwood and is susceptible to fungal decay.  Earlier, it was assumed that catamaran logs are not destroyed by teredinids and pholadids since they are used for eight hours in seawater and kept on the shore the rest of the day.  But the fact is not so.  To substantiate this fact, an instance of heavy destruction inflicted by marine wood borers to catamarans at Pudimadaka, a fishing village located 60 km south of Visakhapatnam is reported in this paper.  The monetory loss resulting from such destruction and associated repairs are outlined and the need for adoption of wood preservation technology in the treatment of catamarans is stressed.

  • Kuppusamy, V., M.V. Rao, M. Balaji and K. Satyanarayana Rao. 2001. Treatment behaviour of fresh and inservice catamaran logs. The Internat. Res. Group on Wood Preserv. Stockholm, Document No. IRG/WP 01-30255: 1-10.

Catamaran is a conventional fishing craft fabricated by lashing 4-6 shaped logs of soft timber together. Over 73,000 of these craft fabricated out of 165,000 m3 of wood are in use along the vast east coast of India. Each craft lasts for 5-7 years. Over 15,000 m3 of timber is required annually for repairs and replacements of the craft. Such huge demand exerts enormous pressure on the resources.   It is apt, therefore, to extend the practice of wood preservation to the catamaran sector and conserve the precious raw material.  In order to achieve this objective, our Institute took up technology demonstrations way back in 1968.  However, because of illiteracy and socio-economic constraints of the traditional fishermen, the efforts did not catch up well. Under these circumstances, as a renewed measure of propagation, treatment of 3 each of fresh as well as inservice catamarans was taken up some time ago.  The results of pressure impregnation of these six catamarans made of Albizzia falcataria timber with copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) preservative were analyzed to understand the preservative absorption of the constituent logs.  The study revealed that there was no significant variation in the total quantity of chemical absorbed among the fresh as well as inservice catamarans that served for three different periods prior to treatment. However, significant difference was noticed between all the fresh catamarans clubbed as one group and the inservice craft as another group. The CCA absorption ranged from 13.52 to 15.30 kg.m-3 averaging at 14.60 kg.m-3 in the fresh craft and 18.65 to 22.10 kg.m-3 averaging at 20.42 kg.m-3   in the in service catamarans.  Also, each constituent log of the six catamarans differed in its chemical content from the other.  The analysis proved that it is possible to treat the inservice catamarans and achieve good preservative retentions

  • Rao, M.V. and K. Satyanarayana Rao. (2001). Bioresistance of thirteen species of light timber suitable for catamaran fabrication, in marine environment. Proc.Workshop on Forestry, Forest Products and Coastal Population, (Eds) K.Satyanarayana Rao, Surekha G. Sawant and Pankaj K. Aggarwal, Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Bangalore: 134-145.

Bioresistance of thirteen non-conventional light timbers suitable for catamaran fabrication selected on the basis of their specific gravity along with that of seven preferred species was evaluated under marine conditions.  The data were compared with that obtained from elsewhere in the country.  In general, the preferred species were found to offer no better resistance than the non-conventional species in warding off marine borer attack.  Therefore, it is recommended that the non-conventional species may also be used in the fabrication of catamarans to lessen pressure on the few conventional species and reduce investment costs.  Further, it is suggested to use any of these species only after proper preservative treatment so as to minimise recurring expenditure, prolong the durability of the craft and inturn conserve the scarce timber resources of the land.

  • Rao, M. V., M. Balaji, V. Kuppusamy and K. Satyanarayana Rao. (2003). Biofouling and bioresistance of bamboo in marine environment. The Internat. Res. Group on Wood Preserv. Stockholm, Document No. IRG/WP 03-10482: 1-13.

Despite the use of vast quantity of bamboo in marine sector in Asia and the Pacific region, precise data on biofouling and bioresistance aspects of this valuable material are lacking.  Therefore, studies of this kind were taken up for the first time on three commercially important Indian species, namely, Bambusa bambos, B. tulda and Dendrocalamus strictus at Visakhapatnam harbour on the east coast of India.  Culms, both in round and half-round form of the three species were found quite conducive to the recruitment of a good number of biofoulants. The half-rounds, of course, have exhibited differential biofouling on the outer and inner surfaces.  The three species of bamboo were also found highly vulnerable to the attack of wood boring teredinids in marine environment.   While half-round culms of B. bambos and B. tulda were severely destroyed in a quarter, that of D. strictus and round culms of B. bambos and B. tulda were extensively damaged in two quarters and those of D. strictus in three quarters.  The three species of bamboo thus offered suitable substrata for the heavy accumulation of a number of biofoulants besides presenting poor bioresistance against the attack of marine wood borers. The low natural durability of bamboo in sea water indicates a need for urgent adoption of preservative treatment to achieve effective utilisation of the commodity under marine environment.

  • Rao, M.V., K. Satyanarayana Rao, M. Balaji and V. Kuppusamy. 2003.  Introduction  of plank-built catamarans along the north coast of Andhra Pradesh, India - A development of recent origin. The Internat. Res. Group on Wood Preserv.Stockholm, Document No.  IRG/WP 03-10483: 1-11.

Hitherto, the most versatile fishing craft of the poor traditional Indian fishermen - the catamaran is made of solid timber logs of a few selected species of broad-leaved softwoods.  Of late, the fishermen find it difficult to get these conventional varieties of timber chiefly because of three reasons, a) scarcity of commodity, b) prohibitive costs and c) competition from match and veneer industries.  As the state of affairs is turning more and more indocile, the poor traditional fisherman is compelled to look for alternative ways to sustain his dear occupation and trade.  As an outcome of such fervent desire, the fishermen in the north east coast of Andhra Pradesh initiated building up catamarans purely from the wooden planks without sacrificing much of the original shape, convenience and carrying capacity.  This paper is intended to bring to light the design of such plank-built catamarans and their advantages.

  • Balaji, M. and K. Satyanarayana Rao. 2004.  Biofouling communities as tools in environmental impact assessment - a study at Visakhapatnam harbour, East Coast of India. Asian Jr. of Microbiol. Biotech. Env. Sci., 6 (2): 223-229.

Result of analysis of fouling communities at three test sites located along a gradient of pollution at Visakhapatnam harbour, east coast of India are detailed in this paper.  Biodiversity and evenness increased towards cleaner waters and index of dominance towards polluted waters.  The fouling complex as reported in 1958, when the harbour was relatively clean, comprised of 54 species whereas the same now has a monospecific dominance of a dreissinid bivalve, Mytilopsis sallei.  It is suggested that biofouling communities may be employed as tools in environmental impact assessment if the communities are monitored over a long period.

  • Kuppusamy, V., M. Balaji, M. V. Rao, and K. Satyanarayana Rao. 2004. Respiratory response of the wood boring teredinid, Lyrodus pedicellatus (Quatrefages) to copper stress. The Internat. Res. Group on Wood Preserv. Stockholm,Document No. IRG/WP 04-10528: 1-10.

Wood boring teredinid molluscs engulf most of the wooden particles scrapped by them while actively boring into wood, obtaining nourishment for their metabolic activities.  In order to protect the wooden structures from the biodeteriorating activity of such organisms, the wood is treated with different chemical formulations to prolong their service life.  Copper chrome arsenic (CCA) is one such wood preservative chemical offering excellent protection to wood under marine conditions.  Field observations with CCA treated test stakes as well as actual wooden structures have, however, shown that they are not free from wood borer attack after considerable service life.  The successful settlement and growth of these organisms are a reflection of their metabolic ability under such adverse chemical stress conditions.  As copper and arsenic are known to be metabolic inhibitors, a study was undertaken to investigate the respiratory behaviour of Lyrodus pedicellatus (Quatrefages), the most virulent teredinid wood borer at Visakhapatnam harbour, East Coast of India.  As a first step, experiments were conducted on this aspect under copper stress.  The results show that in situ oxygen consumption of the animal under normal conditions was found to range from 0.8 - 5.6 μl.mg-1.hr-1 averaging 2.43 μl.mg-1.hr-1.  Under acute toxicity of 0.5 ppm copper, the oxygen demand was observed to fall almost to half the normal levels (0.4 - 3.5 μl.mg-1.hr-1), but showed a gradual increase subsequently during the next 24 hours.  However, when the stress was continued for 96 hours, the oxygen uptake gradually decreased again to 0.2 - 2.1 μl.mg-1.  hr-1.

  • Rao, M.V. and R.V.Krishnan. (1992). Resistance of copper-chrome-boric treated timber   to marine borer attack in cochin harbour waters. J. Ind. Acad.   Wood   Science : 23:1:29-32

Among the water-borne fixed type wood preservatives Copper-Chrome-Boric (CCB) is not sufficiently tested for use in marine environment. Because CCB is cheap and environmentally safe, an attempt was made to evaluate its efficacy in Cochin harbour region. CCB solutions of 2.0 %, 5% ,and 5.0 % concentrations were tried in the test using mango (Mangf/era indica) panels. While the untreated panels were destroyed beyond 50 % in a short span of 6 months the treated ones lasted for I to 4 years. The results are discussed and compared in the light of the reports avail­able (room other regions and the potential of CCB in resisting biodeterioration. of timber under marine  conditions is highlighted.

  • Santha Kumaran, L.N. and M.V. Rao(1992) Occurrence  of  wood boring pholads in Kochi harbour waters (South- West coast of India).  The International research group on wood preservation . IRG/WP/4175/92

The paper reports the occurrence of four species of wood boring pholads (Pholadiae: Martesilnae), namrely Martesia (Martesia) striata (Linnaeus), Martesia (Martesia) fragilis verrill  Bush.  Martesia (Partiooma) nairi  Turner and Santhakumaran and Lignopholas fluminalis (Blanford).  In the Kochi back- waters, south west coast of India.  Of these, M.nairi and L.fluminalis are now recorded for the first time from the area, the former having been collected from test panels of Spondia mangifera, Gyrocarpus asiaticus, Anogeissus latifolia, Terminalia alata and  Hevea brasiliensis and the latter from panels of Pinus roxburghii.  For M. nairi, which is hitherto known only from the mangrove habitat (where it causes extensive damage to vegetation) and rarely from underwater wooden structures.  This is the first record in India from test panels exposed outside the mangrove areas.  A brief comparison  of these pholads and notes on their occurrence and distribution along Indian coast are also included.    

  • Santhakumarn, L.N, M.v. Rao. (1992). Natural durability of some common Indian   timbers and marine plywood against biodeterioration in Kochi waters  The International research group on wood preservation.IRG/WP/4177/92

Panels of thirty-eight timber species and marine plywood were tested in Koehl harbour (South-west India) for periods ranging from 3 to 21 months, so as to evaluate their natural resistance against marine borers. Results indicate that all the timber species studied are non-durable, 6 of them having undergone more than 50% internal destruction within 3 months; 14 species in 6 months, 13 species in 9 months; 2 species in 15 months; and 1 species each within 12, 18 and 21 months. The marine plywood reached 50% damage within 12 months. Timber species which demonstrated comparatively high degree of durability' were Hopea parviflora. Terminalia paniculata. Terminalia crenulata, Aglaia roxburghiana and Xylia xylocarpa. Destruction was caused mainly by Martesia striata (Linnaeus) and Nausitora hedlevi Schepman, though few specimens of Sphaeroma terebrans Bate, Sphaernma annandalei Stebbing and Martesia nairi Turner and Santhakumaran were also encountered. A discussion on the results in the light of reports of previous workers is also included.

  • Rao, M.V., V.Kuppusamy. (1993).  Leachability of creosote: fuel oil (1:1) wood preservative in marine environment . Journal of the Timber Development Association. 30 (1):21-23.

Leach ability of creosote: fuel oil (CFO) from 20 timber panels belonging to 5 different species exposed in Cochin harbour waters is discussed with regard to its variability from species to species and panel to panel within the same species.  The leaching rate of CFO from the panels ranged from1.5% to 10.6% and in general the panels with lower leachability have higher durability and vice versa.

  • Rao, M.V., C.J.Cherian, and P.V. Cherian. (1993).  Further observations on the comparative  efficacy  of some indigenous methods for the protection of uderwater timber structure. Journal of   Timber Development Association.30:1:21-23.

Results of long-term evaluation of several indigenous methods for protection of un­der water timbers against wood boring organisms are reported in this paper. While un­protected control poles were totally destroyed due to severe infestation by the wood borers within a period of 9 months, the poles covered with copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) / creosote fuel oil (CFA) treated coir rope lasted for 5 years, the ones studded with iron nails gave a life of 16 years and those plastered with cement over CCA treated coir rope wind­ing/scattered nailing interconnected with winding wire were in sound condition even afterwards. Specific advantages offered by the methods in curtailing marine borer attack are also mentioned.

  • Satyanarayana Rao, K. ,L. N. Santhakumaran, M. Balaji and V. V. Srinivasan (1993). Natural resistance of rubber wood to marine borers and a preliminary note on the effect of preservative treatment. Indian journal of natural rubber research  6 (1 &2):71-74.

Results of exposure tests carried out on rubber wood at 3 Indian ports (Visakhapatnam and Krishnapatnam on the east coast and Goa on the west coast) are reported. While untreated panels were tested at all the harbours, panels treated with CCA and CCB preservatives were tested at Visakhapatnam and Krishnapatnam. The results indicate that rubber wood is highly perishable in untreated condition, having been completely destroyed by marine borers in only 4-6 months. Treated panels fared well having undergone only negligible attack even after 24 months of exposure and are continuing in the field. This study indicates that rubber wood could be suitably upgraded with preservative treatment to find application even in the rigorous marine environment. Further tests are, however, necessary.

  • Satyanarayana Rao, K. , L.N. Santhakumaran, M.Balaji, V.V.Srinivasan. (1993). In search of   non- polluting, environmentally acceptable  protection methods for marine timber structures. Journal of Indian Accademy of wood science.24:2:2-7.

Deterioration of timber by biological agencies under marine conditions is a highly complex problem affecting diverse maritime operations. In India, the additional expenditure incurred by the fishing industry alone for providing remedial measures against wood infesting organisms is a staggering figure of over 400 million rupees. Of the different techniques employed to control biodeterioration, impregnation of wood by preservatives that contain biocidal chemicals is the most widely accepted method. In this method, the toxicants are gradually released by the leaching action of sea water to provide control. Inorganic compounds of heavy metals (copper, arsenic, zinc, etc.) have been the principal biocides used extensively in the 'wood preservatives' for many years. More recently, the trend has been to use organo-metallic compounds (TBTO, etc.). These chemicals, although very effective, are potentially important sources of contamination. In the current context of growing concern for maintenance of purity of aquatic systems, environmental compatibility is bound to play an increasingly restrictive role in the usage of wood preservatives especially in areas of high boating activity (ports, near shore environs, etc.) and in specialised situations like marine/brackish water fish-farms and sites near coastal industrial establishments. In this paper, the possibilities for evolving non-polluting, environmentally acceptable protectants are examined in detail. Emphasis is laid on control of the biological 'weak links' in the life 'cycles of the destructive organisms and usage of natural anti-biodeterioration compounds, occurring either in bioresistant woods or in marine orga.nisms.

  • Satyanarayana Rao,K .L.N.Santhakulnaran M.Balaji and V.V.Srinivasan  (1993).Destruction of   wood and mangrove vegetation by marine   borers in Goutami-Godavari estuary, east coast of India.  Internat. Res. Group on Wood Preserv., ockholm,  Document No. IRG/WP 93-10021:  1-15

This paper deals with the nature and extent of­ destruction caused by marine boring organisms to wood and mangrove vegetation in the Goutami-Godavari estuary along the east coast of India. Fifteen species, comprising of teredinids,  pholad and 3 sphaerematids were recorded from the area. For the first time, seasonality of recruitment, abundance and growth were studied far important species occurring at 2 Stations in part Kakinada, a fast developing intermediate part located in the estuarine system. Bankia carinata (Gray) and B. campanell t,  Moll and Roch are dominant species at Station I, where low and fluctuating salinity conditions prevail. At Station II, where more stable conditions exist, Teredo furcifera (Von Martens), Lyredus pedicellatus (Quatrefages) and Martesia striata (Linne) are important. In the mangrove area (of approx. 30,OOO ha), damage is mainly caused by Dicyathifer manni (Wright), Nototeredo edax. (Hedley)_ L.pedicellatus: B. campanellata and Sphaeroma annandalei Stebbing. Factors, especially salinity, which play a significant role affecting abundance and distribution of these organisms are discussed.

 

  • Santhakumarn, L.N, M.V.Rao, (1994). Natural durability of some common Indian timbers  and marine plywood against biodeteriortion in Kochi waters (India).(1994). Journal of Timber Development Association of India. 40:40-53.

Panels of thirty eight timber species and marine plywood were tested in Kochi harbour (South-west India) for periods ranging from 3 to 21 months so as to evaluate their natural resistance against marine borers.  Results indicate that all the timber species studied are non durable 6 of them having undergone more than 50% damage within 12 months. Timber species which demonstrated  comparatively high degree of durability were Hopea parviflora, Terminalia paniculata.  Terminalia crenulata, Aglaia roxburghiana and Xylia            xylocarpa. Destruction was caused mainly by Martesia sphaeroma terebrans Bate.  Sphaeroma Annandle, Stebbing and Martesia nari Turner and Santhakumaran were also  encountered.  A discussion on the results in the light of reports of previous workers is also included.

  • Rao M.V., R. V. Krishnan, V. Kuppusamy, C.J. Cherian, PV. Cherian.  (1994). Durability performance of twelve specie s of  India timbers, treated with creosote fuel  CIL in  Cochin harbour waters.  Journal  of marine biol. Association of India.  36: 1& 2: 290-293

Durability of 12 species of Creosote fuel oil (CFO) treated timbers (Bombax ceiba, Minuspos sp., Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, Chukrasia velutina, Abies pindrow, Calophyllum apocalum, Pterocarpus marsupium, Mesua ferrea, Hopea parviflora, Terminalia lata, Anogeissus latifolia and Lagerstroemia microcarpa) in Cochin harbour is discussed in detail.  Compared with the natural durability all the treated panels demonstrated  excellent life.  After 17 years of exposure tests also as many as six species are continuing  in the field.  Non durable timbers viz., B.ceiba,A.fraxinifolius, C.velutina, Minuspos sp. And A. pindrow accomplished equal or superior durability like such durable species as C.apocalum, P.marsupium, M.ferrea, H.parviflora, A.latifolia and L. microcarpa; after CFO treatment.  A single species selected from different geographical localities exhibited no consistency in its performance either in untreated or treated condition.  Results of similar tests conducted at other harbours of the country when compared with the present ones revealed that the performance of a species after preservative treatment also may vary from one harbour to the other.

  • Santhakumaran, L.N, M.V. rao(1994). Occurrence of wood boring pholads in Kochi harbour waters (South-West coast of India). Journal of Timber Development Association of India 49:3:29-37. 

The paper reports the occurrence of four species of wood-boring pholads (Pholadidas:Martesiinae), namely Martesia (Martesia) striata (Linnaeus), Martesia (Martesia) fraglils Verrill and Bush, Martesia (Particoma) nairi Turner and Santhakumaran and Lignopholas fluminalis (Blanford), in the Kochi back-waters, south-west coast of India. Of these, M. nairi and L. fluminalis are now recorded for the first time from the area, the former having been collected from test panels of Spondias mangifera. Gyrocarpus asiaticus, Anogeissus latifolia. Terminalia alata and Hevea brasiliensis and the latter from panels of Pinus roxburghii. For M. nairi. which is hitherto known only from the mangrove habitat (where it causes extensive damage to vegetation) and rarely from . underwater wooden structures, this is the first record in India from test panels exposed Q/Jtside the mangrove areas. A brief comparison of these pholads and notes on their occurrence and distribution along Indian coast are also included.

  • Satyanarayana Rao,K., M. Balaji and V.V. Srinivasan (1994). Resistance of twenty-five species of   timbers to marine borer attack at Visakhapatnam, ,east coast of India. Paper presented in The International Research Group on Wood Preservation. IRG/WP94-30036.

Observations on the natural resistance of 25 species of timbers to marine borer attack for a twelve month period at the Fishing Harbour, Visakhapatnam, East Coast of India, indicate that none of the species was free from borer attack. The damage was mainly by the teredinids - Teredo furcifera and Lyrodus pedicellatus., Martesia straita, Teredo parski, Bankia campanellata and Lyrodus bipartitus were also recorded.  All the Timber species tested were drawn from the same growing region - the state of Andhra Pradesh. .Of the species tested - Ailanthus excelsa, Albzzia chinensis, Bombax ceiba, Bursera serrata, 'Careya arborea, Mangifera indica,Ougenia dalbergioides, Thespesia populnea' and Toona ciliata offered least resistance to borer attack. Anogeissus latifolia, Pterocarpus marsupium and Xylia, xylocarpa exhibited maximum resistance followed by Lannea coromandelica, Artocarpus heterophyllus,'Terminalia alata, Tectona grandis and Eucalyptus hybrid, other species falling in the intermediate category. Present observations indicate the virulence of attack by teredinid wood borers in this area, where a large number of mechanised and traditional wooden fishing craft are in operation. The need for proper utilization of some of these commercial timbers after preservative treatment, is highlighted

  • Balaji, M.,  and K. Satyanarayana Rao (1994). Destruction of Catamarans by Marine Wood   Borers at Pudimadaka, Andhra Pradesh, East Coast of India.Paper   presented in the workshop Forestry, Forest products and coastal population.

Catamarans are the most extensively used traditional fishing craft along the east coast of India and constitute nearly 70% of the total traditional craft. They arc entirely made of wood, The species of wood being used in fabrication of catamarans contains mostly sapwood and is susceptible to fungal decay. Earlier, it was assumed that catamaran logs are not destroyed by teredinids and pholadids since they are used for eight hours in seawater and kept on the shore the rest of the day, But the fact is, not so. To substantiate this fact, an instance of heavy destruction inflicted by marine wood borers to catamarans at Pudimadaka, a fishing village located 60 km south of Visakhapatnam is reported in this paper. The monetary loss resulting from such destruction and associated repairs arc outlined and the need for adoption of wood preservation technology in the treatment of catamarans is stressed

  • Rao M. V. and K. Satyanarayana Rao. (1994) Bioresistance of  Thirteen Species of Light Timber suitable for Catamaran Fabrication, in Marine  Environment. Paper presented in the workshop Forestry, Forest products and coastal population.

Bioresistance of thirteen non-conventional light timbers suitable for catamaran fabrication selected on the basis of their specific gravity along with that of seven preferred species was evaluated under marine conditions. The data were compared with that obtained from elsewhere in the country. In general. the preferred species were found to offer no better resistance than the non-conventional species in warding off marine borer attack. Therefore, it is recommended that the non-conventional species may also be used in the fabrication of catamarans to lessen pressure on the few conventional species and reduce investment costs. Further. it is suggested to use any of these species only after proper preservative treatment so as to minimise recurring expenditure, prolong the durability of the craft and intern conserve the scarce timber resources of the land.

  • Balaji, M. and K. Satyanarayana Rao (1994). Behaviour of Mytilopsis sallei (Recluz) in  copper pollution gradients at Visakhapatnam harbour, Bay of Bengal. Paper presented in the workshop Forestry, Forest products and coastal population

Mytilopsis salleii (Rec1uz), an exotic bivalve, possibly introduced from Central America, has become a fouling pest causing severe operational problems to marine structures at Visakapatnam Harbour. The animal occurs throughout the inner harbour area, where a gradient of domestic and industrial pollution exists. An analysis of the soft parts of M salleii collected from three sites along the pollution gradient revealed a positive correlation of copper content in the tissues with that present in the ambient. The results are discussed in the light of available literature

  • Satyanarayana Rao  K and M. Balaji . ( 1994). Observations on the Development of Test Block Communities at an Indian Harbor. Paper published in book   "Recent Developments in  Biofouling control" published by Oxford & OBH publishing Co. Ltd.  75-76

Observations on the progression of development of fouling communities at Visakhapatnam on the eastern coast of India carried out over a two-year period are presented.The study was onducted at two stations, Station I and Station 11, having widely differing ecological conditions. While rapid colonization was a feature common to both stations, there were differences in the emergence of dominant species and sequence of events of community development. In the polluted waters of Station I, the introduced bivalve Mytilopsis sallei  gained virtual monopoly within 30 days, almost eliminating all other species. Dominance was shared by different species (spirorbids, bryozoans, barnacles, sponges, oysters) at different stages in the relatively cleaner waters of Station II. Factors involved in community development such as new recruits, biological interactions, and physical disturbances are discussed. Because the dominance gained by some species in the community does not appear to involve an orderly or directional process that is predictable or involve modifications of the physical environment, it is argued that they should best be regarded as "multiple stable points" rather than "climax communities." This appears to be applicable in many Indian, subtropical, and other tropical harbors

  • Satyanarayana Rao, K.  and M. Balaji . (1994). Toxicity of Copper to Mytilopsis sallei (Recluz) and  Some Aspects of Its Control in Indian Waters.Paper published in book"Recent developments in  Biofouling control" published by Oxford & OBH Publishing Co. Ltd.  75-76

Results are presented of experiments conducted to study the toxicity of copper to Mytilopsis  sallei (Recluz), a highly successful fouling bivalve at Visakhapatnam, Bay of Bengal. The LC,. values obtained indicate that the species is highly resistant to copper compared to several other bivalves. None of the antifouling paints or wood preservatives presently used in India offers adequate protection against this species. Chlorinated rubber-based paints containing tributyltin oxide fare relatively better. The adaptive strategies contributing to the success of M. sallei in Indian harbors are outlined

  • Santhakumaran , L.N. and M. V. Rao (1997) Performance of preservative-treated rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) in Goa and Kochi  waters (west coast of India). Paper presented in the workshop  " The International research group on wood preservation.

Performance of rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis) against biodeterioration, when pressure-treated with Copper-Chrome-Arsenic (CCA) and Copper-Chrome-Boric (CCB) and exposed in Mandovi estuary (Goa) and in Kochi waters for a period of 32 months and 9 months respectively, has been discussed. The control panels were completely destroyed within a period of 4 to 6 months at both the localities. The resistance offered even by the treated panels was not encouraging, as infestation and  damage to them were observed within 6 months of exposure. Though treatment at higher levels of retention was more effective, even these panels underwent 15 to 23% internal destruction at Goa and 12 to 16% destruction at Kochi within 9 months. Panels treated with both preservatives at lower and higher concentrations were rejected within 23 and 32 months respectively at Goa. Major borers present in the panels were Martesia striata, Nausitora hedleyi and Lyrodus pedicellatus. In general, there' was no difference in the efficacy of CCA and CCB. Although failure of CCA and CCB­treated panels has been reported earlier from these test stations, the present results emphasise the need for further trials so as to arrive at any reliable conclusion on improvement of durability by preservative treatment.

  • Balaji, M.  and K.S. Satyanarayana Rao. (1998). Performance of ten species of timber   in Visakhapatnam Harbour.Journal of Timber Development Association of India 44:2:24-26.

Exposure trials were conducted on ten species of timber grown in Andhra Pradesh to evaluate their resistance to marine. wood-borer attack at Visakhapatnam. The results are discussed in the light of available literature and the benefit of adoption of wood preservation technology in enhancing the service life of timber is outlined.

  • Rao, M.V., L.N. Santhakumaran, K.Satyanarayana Rao., (1998). Marine borer resistance of some chemically treated timber in Kochi waters (West coast,India). Journal of Timber Development Association of  India. 44:2:27-35

Copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) and Copper-chrome-boric (CCS) treated samples of Borassus flabellifer, Boswellia serrata,Lagerstroemia speciosa, Olea dioica and Toona ciliata were tested for their durability performance in Kochi waters. As against a natural durability of 3 to 6 months, the five species lasted for periods ranging from 12 to 18 months sustaining about 50% destruction. despite the very intense borer activity in this harbour. Discrepancies noticed in the performance of treated timbers are discussed along with factors responsible.

  • Balaji., M , M. . V. Rao and K. Salyanarayana Rao (1999). Natural resistance of ten species of  catamaran grade timber to marine wood borer attack at Visakhapatnam and Kochi harbours.  Journal of marine biological Association of India: 41: ( 1& 2):96-102

The natural resistance of ten species of timber suitable for catamaran fabrication was evaluated at Visakhapatriam and Kochi harbours to suggest suitable substitutes to the conventional species as their availability is fast dwindling and prices are soaring up. The results showed that none of the ten species exhibited any remarkable resistance against marine organisms attack. The timbers lasted at the most for 9 months at Visakhapatnam and 7 months at Kochi. While the destruction of panels at Visakhapatnam was caused exclusively by teredinids, that at Kochi was brought about by both teredinids and pholadids. From the study, it is seen that preferred species did not offer any specific advantage over the underutilized species tested. Therefore, it is emphasized that any timber species used for catamaran fabrication be treated with suitable preservative chemicals so as to obtain long service life, saving of expenditure and conservation of forest wealth and its biodiversity.

  • Balaji, M.  & K Satyanarayana Rao (1999). Size dependent bioaccumulation of heavy metals by  Mytilopsis sallei (Recluz) Visakhapatnam harbour.  Indian Journal of Experimental biology. 38: 405-407.

Relationship between body size and bioaccumulation of copper, zinc, lead and cadmium in the fouling bivalve, M. sallei (Rec1uz) in Visakhapatnam harbour was studied. While concentration of copper, zinc and lead decrease with increasing size, no such relationship is observed for cadmium.

  • Rama Rao., N., T. Ravishankar, M.S. Swaminathan. (2001). Collection and consumption of wild       tubers/Rhizomes by the various tribes in Andhra Pradesh.  ENVIS News letter 7:1:4-7

Consumption of wild tubers/rhizomes is quite common among the tribes of Andhra Pradesh.  Tribals are familiar with locations of tuberous  plants spread in the forest area and often quite knowledgeable about the availability of a wide varieties of these plants.  Several of these genetic resources may constitute the raw material for plant breeders and biotechnologists to produce new varieties and breeds.

  • Kunhikannan, C., N.Rama Rao, and S.S. Bisen. ( 2001). Additions to the flora of Tadoba National park, Chandrapur, Maharashtra, India. Indian journal of forestry.  11:1-11.

Seventy four species of vascular plants belonging to 29 families and 59 genera were collected include 10 trees, 6 climbers, and 58 herbs, which form addition to the flora of Tadoba (Taroba) National Park, Chandrapur

  • Rama Rao, N, T.Ravishankar, and B.A. Khan. (2000). New records of the flora of Andhra  Pradesh.Indian Journal of Forestry 11:

The paper records thirty-nine species of vascular plants belonging to thirty angiospcrm families, forming additions to the flora of Andhra Pradesh state. Five species from southern India and seven species from Eastern Ghats are reported here for the first time

  • Kuppusamy, V., M.V. Rao,  M.Balaji, K.Satyanarayana Rao. (2001). Treatment behaviour of fresh and in service catamaran logs.   Paper presented in IRG workshop  IRG/WP 01-30255

Catamaran is a conventional fishing craft fabricated by lashing 4-6 shaped logs of soft timber together.  Over 73,000 of these craft fabricated out of 165,000 m3 of wood are in use along the vast east coast of India.   Each craft lasts for 5-7 years.  Over 15,000 m3 of timber is required annually for repairs and replacements of the craft.  Such huge demand exerts enormous pressure on the resources.  It is apt, therefore, to extend the practice of wood preservation to the catamaran sector and conserve the precious raw material.  In order to achieve this objective, our institute took up technology demonstrations way back in 1968.  However, because of illiteracy and socio-economic constraints of the traditional fishermen , the efforts did not catch up well.  Under these circumstances, as a renewed measure of propagation, treatment of 3 each of fresh as well as in service catamarans was taken up some time ago.  The results of pressure impregnation of these six catamarans made of Albizzia falcataria timber with copper chrome arsenic (CCA) preservative were analyzed to understand the preservative absorption of the constituent logs.  The study revealed that there was no significant variation in the total quantity of chemical absorbed among the fresh as well as in service catamarans that served for three different periods prior to treatment.  However, significant difference was noticed between all the fresh catamarans clubbed as one group and the in service craft as another group.  The CCA absorption ranged from 13.52 to 15.30 kg. m3 in the  in service catamarans.  Also, each constituent log of the sic catamarans differed in its chemical content from the other. The analysis proved  that it is possible to treat the in-service catamarans and achieve good preservative retentions.

  • Rao, M.V., V.Kuppusamy, K.Satyanarayana Rao, L.N. Santhakumarn. (2001).Leaching of CCA preservative from treated timber in marine environment.Paper presented in IRG workshop  IRG/WP 01-30254.

Knowledge on the amount of preservatives leaching out of treated wood is essential to optimise the chemical loading in various species of timber required for different end uses. In order to gain more insight into this aspect, the residual CCA content in 40 treated timber panels belonging to 14 species removed on destruction by marine organisms from a series of durability tests conducted in Kochi waters (west coast, India) were estimated. The data showed that CCA enhanced the durability of various timber species to different degrees. In the case of panels treated to lower loading, the average annual leaching of CCA ranged from 0.36-2.81 kg.m-3 and that in specimens subjected to higher loading from 0.54-4.99 kg.m3. The leaching rate was found to be relatively slower in panels with higher loading than that with lower loading. In general, the leaching rate of CCA was seen varying among panels of different species, panels with identical initial preservative content and even among various panels within a species. The study thus suggests the requirement of in-depth field studies into the various aspects governing the leaching phenomenon of preservatives used under marine conditions to arrive at appropriate conclusions

  • Balaji, M., M.V. Rao, V.Kuppusamy, K.Satyanarayana Rao. ( 1999). Toxicity  of CCA compound and its components to the larvae and adults of a wood boring teredinid, Lyrodus pedicellatus quatrefages In: K. Satyanarayana Rao, S.Gairola and P. K. Aggarwal (ed.) Proc.National Workshop on Wood Preservation in India: Challenges, opportunities and strategies, Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Bangalore, 73-80.

Lyrodus pedicellatus (Quatrefages), a teredinid wood borer, is one of the most virulent marine borers at Visakhapatnam outer harbour area. In order to protect wooden structures from its attack among others, the structures are treated with wood preservatives, especially copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) composition. Normally, a preservative loading of 32 kg.m'3 of CCA is recommended to protect timber under marine conditions in tropical Indian  waters. To determine the optimum retention of CCA required to prevent the attack of L. pedicellatus, experiments were conducted on the larvae of the species. Test coupons of Pinus roxburghii treated to different CCA retentions were offered to the larvae for attack. Recruitment of larvae was monitored continuously till they succeed. Also, experiments were conducted on the toxicity of CCA compounds and its components to adults of the species. The activity of the organisms was recorded at 24 hour intervals, upto 96 hours. The boring activity of the animals in controls as well as treated coupons was determined. The results are discussed in the light of available literature.

  • Kuppusamy, V., M.V. Rao,. M. Balaji, and K. Satyanarayana Rao (2002).Preservative  absorption   response  of planks of Anogeissus acuminata for plank built catamarans.  Paper  published in  IRG workshop in UK. IRG/WS 02-40245.

Due to shortage of timber coupled with other compelling factors, traditional fishermen along the east coast of India, especially of Andhra Pradesh, of late, are departing from conventional log. type wooden catamarans. Instead, they are fabricating catamarans out of timber planks of hard woods and utilizing thermocol  for buoyancy. Mostly, locally available timber of a Combretaceae species, Anogeissus acuminata (Yon) is used to fabricate these plank-built catamarans. Since these catamarans are also built with untreated timber, there is every need to extend wood preservation technology to these craftmen so as to achieve enhanced service life and conserve the resources.  Therefore, the Institute of Wood Science and Technology took up treatment of timber meant for five such craft with copper- chrome-arsenic (CCA). Thirteen different logs were. procured and converted into planks and batons of suitable sizes, debarked, cleaned and air dried under shade. While the length of the planks ranged from 0.81 to 6.53 m, the width varied from 16 to 44 cm. After sufficient seasoning, the material was pressure treated with 6% CCA by full cell method as per IS: 401 (1982).  Chemical retentions were computed from the weight gained by the individual planks and sets of 20 batons immediately after treatment. The preservative absorption in the planks ranged from 13;05 to 69.80 kg/m3 averaging at 25.90 kg/m3 and that in the batons averaged at 32 kg/m3. The quantity of CCA absorbed by the planks was analyzed with reference to their length, width, thickness and volume.  Planks when categorized to different length and volume groups exhibited clear difference in the intake of chemical by them but when categorized into different width and thickness classes showed not much variation. All the treated planks and batons after air drying in shade for 15 days were fabricated into five catamarans. Thus, though the planks of A acuminata are either very long or very wide, they showed a positive response to CCA treatment by absorbing reasonably good quantities of preservative.  Similarly, on fabrication of the catamarans, an average retention of 21.79 to 25.43 kg/m3 of CCA per craft could be achieved. These values fall into the recommended preservative absorption range of 16 to 32 kg/m3 (IS: 401; 1982) for marine  structures.

  • Rao,M.V.,M.Balaji, V.Kuppusamy and K.Satyanarayana Rao. (2003).Biofouling and bioresistance of bamboo in marine environment. Paper presented in the IRG workshop in Australia. IRG/WP 03-10482.

Despite the use of vast quantity of bamboo in marine sector in Asia and the pacific region, precise data on biofouling and bioresistance aspects of this valuable material are lacking.  Therefore, studies of this kind were taken up for the first time on three commercially important Indian species, namely, Bambusa bambos, B.tulda and Dendrocalamus strictus  at Visakhapatnam harbour on the east coast of India. Culms, both in round an half round form of the three species  were found quite conductive to the recruitment of a good number of  biofoulants.  The half rounds of course, have exhibited differential biofouling on the outer and inner surfaces.  The tree species of bamboo were also found highly vulnerable to the attack of wood boring teredinids in marine environments.  While half round culms of B.bambos and B.tulda were severely destroyed in a quarter, that of D.strictus  and round culms of B.bambus and B.tulda were extensively damaged in two quarters and those of D.strictus in three quarters.  The three species of bamboo thus offered suitable substrata for the heavy accumulation of a number of biofoulants besides presenting poor bioresistance against the attack of marine wood borers.  The low natural durability of bamboo in sea water indicates a need for urgent adoption of preservative treatment to achieve effective utilization of the commodity under marine environment.

  • Rao, M.V., K. Satyanarayana Rao, M. Balaji and V. Kuppusamy (2003).Introduction of plank built catamarans along the north coast of Andhra Pradesh, India- A development of recent origin.  Paper presented in the  IRG workshop in Australia. IRG/WP 02-10483.

Hitherto, the most versatile fishing craft of the poor traditional Indian fishermen - the catamaran is made of solid timber logs of a few selected species of broad-leaved softwoods.Of late,the fishermen find it difficult to get these conventional varieties of timber chiefly because of three reasons, a) scarcity of commodity, b) prohibitive costs and c) competition from match and veneer industries. As the state of affairs is taming more and more indocile, the poor traditional fisherman is compelled to look for alterative ways to sustain his dear occupation and trade. As an outcome of such fervent desire, the fishermen in the north east coast of Andhra Pradesh initiated building up catamarans purely from the wooden planks without sacrificing much of the original shape, convenience and carrying capacity. This paper is intended to bring to light the design of such plank-built catamarans and their advantages

  • Rama Rao and  K. Satyanarayana Rao  (2004).  Useful wild plant genetic resource cultivars in Godavari valley of eastern Ghats in Andhra Pradesh. .Paper presented in the National Workshop on "Regional Strategy for Plant Conservation" sponsored by Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education, Dehra dun.

Genetic resources hold the key to increasing food security and improving the human economy and conditions. Without access to traditional land races and their wild relatives,  modem agriculture would be seriously endangered. Therefore, the present study was undertaken among the tribal populations of Godavari valley in Andhra Pradesh. Ethnobotanical studies conducted to identify the availability of useful wild plant genetic resources/cultivars in Godavari valley of Eastern Ghats in Andhra Pradesh have resulted in the recording of 43 plant species used by the tribes for various purposes. Ensete glaucum (Roxb.) Cheesman and Musa balbisiana (Colla) two rare and endemic plant species to Eastern Ghats were collected and reported. All the useful taxa were identified and latest nomenclature; family, local name and their uses were enumerated.

  • Rama Rao, N.  and  K. Satyanarayana Rao (2004). Ethnobiology and  biodiversity conservation of mangrove ecosystem . Paper presented in the National workshopon "Conservation, Restoration and Sustainable Management of Mangrove Forests in India

Preservation of forest wealth is essential for the welfare of indigenous coastal communities and tribes from whom, in turn we can get valuable information on the traditional folklore medicines. From time immemorial, the ethnic groups forming part and parcel of the forest ecosystem have been practicing some taboos, totems and myths relating to the preservation of flora and fauna in the form of sacred groves. Mangrove forests are regarded as the most productive and biodiverse wetlands on the earth, and an important natural reserve of biological diversity. They are a source for wood products- timber, poles and posts, firewood, charcoal, non-wood products such as fodder, honey, wax, tannin, dye, medicines and material for thatching as well as aquatic products such as fish, prawns, crabs, oysters, mullets and mussels. The ethnobiological information thus gathered from the coastal communities and tribes would give a comprehensive database of the mangrove resources, which could be used for further scientific investigations. The ethnobiological information also can play a significant role in the establishment of small scale industries, improving the quality of life and in poverty alleviation of the coastal communities and tribes through sustainable utilization of mangrove biological resources. On the basis of etthnobiological studies, it is possible to suggest some of the potential plants/animals for cultivation/rearing in coastal areas, which could be mutually beneficial. The upliftment and poverty alleviation of coastal communities and tribes without disturbing their age-old traditional and cultural practices is an important factor in biodiversity conservation and sustainable management of natural resources. It is hoped that the present study wil1 greatly contribute towards achieving the above goals. From the ethnobiological point of view, the mangrove areas have remained under explored and no comprehensive data, particularly on inventory of biological resources, folklore survey and documentation or this region arc available. There are lots of gaps in the biological knowledge of the area particularly sustainable utilization of mangrove biological resources. A vast potential exists to study the traditional knowledge on biological resources of mangroves     .

  • Balaji, M.,and K.Satyanarayana Rao.(2004), Biofouling communities as tools in environmental    impact assessment - A study at Visakhapatnam harbour, East coast of India. Asian Journal   of  Microbiol Biotech Environment Science Vol. 6 (2): 223-229.

Result of analysis of fouling communities at three test sites located along a gradient of pollution at Viskhapatnam harbour, east coast of India are detailed in this paper. Biodiversity arid evenness increased towards cleaner waters and index of dominance towards polluted waters. The  fouling complex as reported in 1958, when the harbour was relatively clean, comprised of 54 species whereas the same now has a mono­specific dominance of a dreissinid  bivalve, Mytilopsis sallei. It is suggested that biofouling communities may be employed as tools in environmental impact assessment if the communities are monitored over a long period.

  • Kuppusamy, M. Balaji, M:-V. Rao, and K. Satyanarayana Rao (2004).  Respiratory response of the wood boring teredinid, Lyrodus pedicellatus (Quatrefages) to copper stress Paper published in the IRG meeting  in 35th Annual meeting IRG/WP/04-10528.

Wood boring tercdinid molluscs engulf most of the wooden particles scrapped by thcm while actively boring into wood, obtaining nourishment for their metabolic activities. In order to protect the wooden structures from the biodeteriorating activity of such organisms, the wood is treated with different chemical formulations to prolong their service life. Copper chromc arscnic  (CCA) is one such wood preservative chemical offering excellent protection to wood under marine conditions. Field observations with CCA treated test stakes as well as actual wooden structures have, however, shown that they are not frce from wood borer attack after considerable service life. The successful settlement and growth of these organisms are a reflection of their metabolic ability under such adverse chemical stress conditions. As copper and arsenic are known to be metabolic inhibitors, a study was undertaken to investigate thc respiratory behaviour of Lyrodlls pedicellatus (Quatrefages), the most virulent teredinid wood borer at Visakhapatnam harbour, East Coast of India. As a first step, experiments were conducted on this aspect undcr copper stress. The results show that insitu oxygen consumption of the animal under normal conditions was found to range from 0.8 - 5.6 µl.mg-1.hr-1. averaging 2.43µ.mg-1.hr-1. Under acute toxicity of 0.5 ppm copper, the oxygen demand was observed to fall almost to half thc normal lcvels (0.4 - 3.5µmg.-1.hr-1 ), but showed a gradual increase subsequcntly during thc ncxt 24 hours. Howcver, whcn thc strcss was continued for 96 hours, the oxygen uptake gradually decreased again to 0.2 - 2. Iµl.mg-1.hr-1.

  • Tarakananda, B., M.Balaji, R.Ramamurthi and K..Satyanarayana Rao. (2004). Occurrence of   marine wood borers at three ports in Andhra Pradesh. Paper presented in IRG Workshop in Sweden. IRG/WP 04-10509.

Marine wood borers are a specialized group of organisms which destroy the wooden structures and cause huge monetary losses.  They are site specific and their distribution depends on the water quality of a particular area.  Seven species of wood borers such as Martesia striata, Teredo furcifera, T.parksi, Lyrodus pedicellantus, L. bipartite, Bankia companellata and B.carinata have been identified in the present study. This paper deals with the nature , distribution and growth of wood borers at three ports in Andhra Pradesh, i.e. Krishnapatnam Kakinada and Visakhapatnam during November, 1993 to October  1995.  The results of exposure trials (test coupons) are discussed in the light of available literature.

  • Rao, M.V, M.Balaji, V.Kuppusamy and K.Satyanarayana Rao., (2003). Improving the service life of plank built catamarans made of Anogeissus acuminata through wood preservation. The Internat. Res. Group on Wood Preserv.Stockholm,Document No.  IRG/WP 03-10483: 1-11.

Shortage of timber coupled with other compelling factors of  late is forcing traditional fishermen,  especially of the East Coast of Andhra Pradesh to part with their conventional log type wooden catamarans. Instead, the fishermen are fabricating catamarans out of timber planks of hard woods alongwith thermocol. Mostly, locally available timber of a Combretaceae member, namely, Anogeissus acuminata (Pasi, Yon) is employed in the fabrication. Usually, these catamarans are also built with untreated timber and hence there is a need to treat them with wood preservatives to ensure a long service life and as well to conserve the resources. Therefore, the Institute of Wood Science and Technology took up treatment of timber meant for fIVe such craft with copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) wood preservative, fabricated the craft and launched them into service through the fishermen beneficiaries.  Details o f timber dressing treatment preservative retentions attained and service performance of the catamarans are detailed in this paper

  • Rao, M.V., M.Balaji, V.Kuppusamy and K.Satyanarayana Rao. (2003). Fabrication aspects of plank built catamarans of recent origin. The Internat. Res.Group on Wood Preserv. Stockholm, Document No.  IRG/WP 03-10483: 1-11.

Catamaran, the most versatile fishing craft of the poor traditional Indian fishermen is made of solid timber logs of a few selected species of broad-leaved softwoods so far. However, of late the fishermen find it difficult to get these conventional varieties of timber due to scarcity of commodity, prohibitive costs and competition from match and veneer industries. As the state of affairs is turning more and more indocile, the poor traditional fisherman is compelled to look for alternative ways to sustain his dear occupation and trade. As an outcome of such fervent desire, the fishermen in the north east coast of Andhra Pradesh initiated building up catamarans solely from the wooden planks without sacrificing much of the conventional shape, convenience  and carrying capacity. The design and fabrication aspects of these plank-built catamarans are documented in this paper.

  • Balaji, M., M.v. Rao, V.Kuppusamy and K.Satyanarayana Rao.(2004).Toxicity of CCA compound and its components to the larvae and adults of a wood boring teredinid, Lyrodus pedicellatus Quaterfages.  Proceedings of the National workshop " wood preservation in India: challenges , opportunities and strategies" held on 10th -21st October at Bangalore.

Lyrodus pedicellatus  Quatrefages, a teredinid wood borer, is one of the most virulent marine borers at Visakhapatnam outer harbour area.  In order to protect wooden structures from its attack among others, the structures are treated with wood preservatives, especially copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) composition.  Normally a preservative loading of 32 kg. m -  of CCA is recommended to protect timber under marine conditions in tropical Indian waters. To determine the optimum retention of CCA required to prevent the attack of L.pedicellatus, experiments were conducted on the larvae of the species.  Test coupons of Pinus roxburghii treated to different CCA retentions were offered to the larvae for attack.  Recruitment of larvae was monitored continuously till they succeed.  Also, experiments were conducted on the toxicity of CCA compounds and its components to adults of the species.  The activity of the organisms was recorded at 24 hour intervals, upto 96 hours.  The boring activity of the animals in controls as well as treated coupons was determined.  The results are discussed in the light of available literature.

  • Rama Rao, N., and K.Satyanarayana Rao., (2004). Ethnobiology and biodiversity conservation of mangrove ecosystem. Proceedings of the National workshop "conservation, restoration and sustainable management of mangrove forests in India.  Held at Visakhapatnam.

The ethnobiological information thus gathered from the coastal communities and tribes would give a comprehensive database of the mangrove resources, which could be used for further scientific investigations.  The ethnobiological information also can play a significant role in the establishment of small scale industries, improving the quality of life and in poverty alleviation of the coastal communities and tribes through sustainable utilization of mangrove biological resources.  On the basis of ethnobiological studies, it is possible to suggest some of the potential plants/animals for cultivation/rearing in coastal areas, which could be mutually beneficial.  The upliftment and poverty alleviation of coastal communities and tribes without disturbing their age old traditional and cultural practices is an important factor in biodiversity conservation and sustainable management of natural resources.  It is hoped that the present study will greatly contribute towards achieving the above goals. From the ethnobiological  point of view,  the mangrove areas  have remained under explored and no comprehensive data, particularly on inventory of biological resources, folklore survey and documentation of this region are available.  There are lots of gaps in the biological knowledge of the area particularly sustainable utilization of mangrove biological resources.  A vast potential exists to study the traditional knowledge on biological resources of mangroves.

  • Kuppusamy, V. Balaji, M. M.V. Rao, and K.Satyanarayana Rao. (2004).Respiratory responses of the wood boring teredinid, Lyrodus pedicellatus (Quatrefages) to copper stress.Paper published in the International research group on wood preservation. IRG/WP04-10528.

Wood boring  teredinid mollusks engulf most of the wooden particles scrapped  by them while actively boring into wood, obtaining nourishment for their metabolic activities.  In order to protect the wooden structures from the biodeteriorating activity of such organisms, the wood is treated with different chemical formulations to prolong their service life.  Copper chrome arsenic (CCA) is one such wood preservative chemical offering excellent protection to wood under marine conditions.Field observations with CCA treated test stakes as well as actual wooden structures have, however, shown that they are not free from wood borer attack after considerable service life.The successful settlement and growth of these organisms are a reflection of their metabolic ability under such  adverse chemical stress conditions.  As copper and arsenic are known to be metabolic inhibitors, a study was undertaken to investigate the respiratory behaviour of Lyrodus pedicellantus (Quatrefages), the most virulent teredinid wood borer at Visakhapathnam harbour, East Coast of India.  As a first step, experiments were conducted on this aspect under copper stress.  The results show tha in situ oxygen consumption of the animal under normal conditions was found to range from 0.8- 5.6 μ l. mg-1 hr-1 averaging 2.43 μl.mg-1.hr-1.  Under acute toxicity of 0.5 ppm copper, the oxygen demand was observed to fall almost to half the normal levels (0.4-3.5 μ l.mg -1.hr-1), but showed a gradual increase subsequently during the next 24 hours.  However, when  the stress was continued for 96 hours, the oxygen uptake gradually decreased again to 0.2 -2.1 μ l.mg-1. hr-1.

  • Tarakanadha, B. M.Balaji, R.Ramamurthi, and K.Satyanarayana Rao. (2004).Occurrence of marine wood borers at three ports in Andhra Pradesh, India.Paper prepared for the 35th Annual meeting   "The international research group on wood preservation." IRG/WP 04-10509.

Marine wood borers are a specialized group of organisms which destroy the wooden structures and cause huge monetary losses.  They are site specific and their distribution depends on the water quality of a particular area.  Seven species of wood borers such as Martesia striata, Teredo furcifera, T.parksi, Lyrodus pedicellatus, L.bipartita, Bankia companellata and B.carinata have been identified in the present study.  This paper deals with the nature, distribution and growth of wood borers at three ports in Andhra Pradesh, i.e. Krishnapatnam, Kakinada and  Visakhapatnam during November, 1993 to October 1995.  The results of exposure trials (test coupons) are discussed in the light of available literature.

  • Balaji, M., and K.Satyanarayana Rao. (2004). Biofouling communities as tools in environmental impact assessment - A study at Visakhapatnam harbour, East Coast of India. Asian Journal of Microbiol Biotech, Env. Sci Vol. 6 No.(2):223-229.

Result of analysis of fouling communities at three test sites located along a gradient of pollution at Visakhapatnam harbour, east coast of India are detailed in this paper.  Biodiversity and evenness increased towards cleaner waters and index of dominance towards polluted waters.  The fouling complex as reported in 1958, when the harbour was relatively clean, comprised of 54 species whereas the same now has a monospecific dominance of a dreissinid bivalve, Mytilopsis sallei.  It is suggested that biofouling communities may be  employed as tools in environmental impact assessment if the communities over a long period.

  • Rao, M.V., Balaji, M., V.Kuppusamy  and K.Satyanarayana Rao. (2005).Fabrication aspects of plank-built catamarans of recent origin. Society  of fisheries technologists. 48-57.

Catamaran, the most versatile fishing craft of the traditional Indian fishermen used to be fabricated of solid timber logs of a few selected species of broad-leaved softwoods, so far.  However, of late, the fishermen have been finding it difficult to get these conventional varieties of timber due to scarcity of commodity, prohibitive costs and competition from  match and veneer industries.  In an effort to find alternative material for building catamaran, the fishermen in the northeast coast of Andhra Pradesh have started building catamarans solely from the wooden planks of hard wood using thermocol as buouant material without sacrificing  much of the conventional shape, convenience and carrying capacity.  The design and fabrication aspects of these plank-built catamarans are documented in this paper.

  • Rao, M.V., M.Balaji, V.Kuppusamy and K.Satyanarayana Rao. (2005). Improving the service life of plank-built catamarans made of Anogeissus acuminate.Scociety of Fisheries Technologists 67-74

Shortage of timber coupled with other compelling factors has been forcing traditional fishermen, especially of the northeast coast of Andhra Pradesh to part with their conventional log type wooden catamaran in recent times.  The fishermen have started fabricating catamarns out of timber  planks of hard woods along with thermocol.  Mostly, locally available timber of a Combreataceae member, viz., Anogeissus acuminate  is employed in the fabrication.  Usually, these catamarans are also built with untreated timber and hence there is a need to treat them with wood preservatives to ensure a long service life.  Therefore, the Institute of Wood Science and Technology took up treatment of timber meant for five such craft with copper-chrome arsenic(CCA) wood preservative, fabricated the craft and launched them into service through the fishermen beneficiaries.  Details of timber dressing, treatment, preservative retentions attained and service performance of the catamarans are detailed in this ppaper

  • Tarakanadha, B., M.V. Rao, M.Balaji, Pankaj Aggarwal, and K.Satyanarayana Rao.(2005).   Utility, deterioration and preservation of marine timber in India.  Paper presented in  the workshop  "International Research group on wood protection" held at Bangalore. IRG/WP 05-40314

Timber is extensively used in  India in the marine environment for various purposes due to its several advantages over modern materials.  Infact, its use is increasing in recent years, finding wider and wider applications and this scenario is not going to change in the near future.  Though, the bio-deterioration problem is found very severe in tropical waters, still indigenous methods are widely employed for the protection of fishing craft  and the present level of chemical treatment is well below 5% of total timber used.  This is due to socio economic problems of the potential timber user groups, etc., in  this paper, types of fishing craft used in the country, timber uses in the marine environment, bio-deterioration losses, research conducted on bio-deterioration aspects  at various places and methods applied  for the protection of wooden structures are presented.

  • Rao, M.V., M.Balaji, V.Kuppusamy and K.Satyanarayana Rao. (2005). Cleistanthus collinus (Roxb.) Benth. Ex Hook. F. and Wrightia tinctoria (Roxb.) R.Br.-two timbers with promising durability under marine conditions.  Paper published in Annual Meeting " The International research group on wood protection" IRG/WP 05-10552.

During the course of natural durability studies on indigenous timber at Visakhapatnam harbour, two species, namely, Cleistanthus collinus (Karada) and Wrightia tinctoria (Dudhi) were found to resist marine borer attack for reasonably longer periods.  The panels of C.collius completely resisted borer attack for 9 months but became susceptible to teredinid attack thereafter.  The teredinids gradually attacked the panels in increasing numbers and by the end 24 months of exposure trials, the apparent destruction caused by the borers reached >50%.  However, on splitting open the panels, the internal destruction was found to be only 8% as majority of teredinids could not penetrate deep into wood, leaving only superficial pits.  The panels of W.tinctoria completely resisted borer attack  only for 3 months unlike C.collinus.  Subsequently, this species became susceptible to pholadid attack but continued to resist teredinid attack for 12 months.  The wood borer attack, especially of pholadids followed by teredinids  gradually increased and by the end of 30 months, the apparent destruction reached >50%.  However, on inspecting the split open panels, the internal destruction was observed to be 60%.

  • Rao, M.v., M.Balaji, V.Kuppusamy and K.Satyanarayana Rao. (2005). Durability of Anogeissus acuminatae timber used for plank-built catamarans. Paper published in Annual meeting "The International research group on wood protection" IRG/WP 05- 10551.

Catamaran, the most versatile traditional fishing craft used along the Indian coast is made hitherto  of solid timber of a few selected species of broad-leaved soft woods.  Due to scarcity coupled with high cost of these timbers, the craft, of late, are fabricated from the wooden planks of an indigenous hardwood species, namely Anogeissus acuminate (Yon) belonging to the family  Combretaceae.  Information on the durability characteristic of Anogeissus acuminate in marine environment is lacking.  Therefore, the property was assessed at Visakhapatnam harbour, East Coast of India.  Test panels of the species were pressure treated with 6% solutions of copper chrome arsenic (CCA) and copper chrome boric( CCB)  wood preservatives and the treated panels along with controls in five replications were put to marine exposure trials.  The tests revealed that  untreated panels of A.acuminata suffered extensive damage from the wood borers, especially teredinids and were rejected in 15 months.  On the other hand, CCB treated panels had undergone only 10 to 20 % destruction during the same period while CCA treated panels remained free from borer  attack.  However, both categories of treated panels subsequently succumbed to intense borer damage.  While CCB panels were destroyed in 21 months.  CCA panels were rejected in 27 months. 

  • Swain, P.K, N.Rama Rao, M.V. Rao, and Sanjai Mohan. ( 2005). Status of mangroves in     Andhra Pradesh, India.  Paper published in National Symposium on Trends in plant science research held at Visakhapatnam.

Mangrove forests are the most productive and diverse wetlands found in the intertidal zones of sheltered shores, estuaries, creeks, back waters, lagoons, marshes and mud flats of tropical and subtropical  regions.  They act as wind breakers protecting the coasts from stroms, cyclones, tsunamis etc., Mangroves provided  shelter to vast fishery resources, which generate livelihood and support scores of coastal populace directly or indirectly.  They also render good habitat for the migratory avifauna and rich wildlife. A total  of 90 mangrove  species are so far reported from   around the world.   Of these,  69 are present in India.  Among these, 35 species occur in Andhra Pradesh state.  Of these, 16 species are categorized as true mangroves that require both seawater and river water. Information so far reported on the status, diversity and distribution of these mangroves was very inconsistent differing from one researcher to the other.  Taxonomy of the mangroves in the state is also often confusing because of lack of distinction between true mangroves and associated species. At present, mangroves are under serious threat due to both natural calamities like cyclones and tsunamis and biological adversities like diseases and bioinvasions.  Also,  anthropongenic  pressures like clear cutting, industrial pollution, domestic contamination reclamation for agriculture, aquaculture, habitation and industrial enterprise coupled with reduced river water inflow due to dam construction and diversion of river water pose serious effects on mangrove ecosystems.  So conservation, restoration and sustainable management of the extremely fragile mangrove ecosystems have been attaining utmost significance and needs to be  addressed sincerely and seriously.

  • Rama Rao, N. (2006). Ethnoveterinary plants of the Godavari valley in Andhra Pradesh, India. Paper published in the seminar on biodiversity and conservation of flora and fauna of Andhra Pradesh.

From the prehistoric ages, human life and culture have either directly or indirectly been associated with or influenced by the vegetation around.  Primitive man was entirely dependent on nature for his survival relying on plants and animals for his food, shelter, clothing, material culture and medicine.  Thus the primitive man has become a repository of knowledge  of the economic and medicinal plants around him.  In Andhra Pradesh, the tribal communities in general are confined to isolated hills and valleys in addition to the adjacent plains of Godavari valley.  Their main  occupation is  agriculture and collection of forest resources.  The tribes practice podu cultivation (shifting cultivation) on hill slopes and plough cultivation in plains.  Equally he has recognized animal power as good source of energy for tilling the land, transportation of men and materials.  Further, the tribes rear pigs, cows, buffalos, goats, fowls, etc. for deriving more economic benefits.  Similar to their sole dependence on folk medicines and herbal remedies for treating own ailments, the acquired knowledge is used to treat the diseased animals also.  Even today, the tribes do not   have easy access  to modern veterinary medicines or  doctors and have to rely on their own traditional knowledge, which, of course, is practical, effective, cheap and readily available.  In Andhra Pradesh, not much work has been done on the diversity of ethno veterinary plants so far.  Hence, a study was taken up to improve and document such traditional knowledge.  As a result, 35 noteworthy ethno-veterinary plant species (either lesser known or unknown) comprising of 33 genera falling under 21 families were brought to light. The information about the plant/plant parts used mode of application and dosage were gathered from the tribes, namely, Konda reddis, Konda kammaras, Koyas and valmikis.  The same was crosschecked, critically analyzed and documented.  The specimens are deposited  in wood biodegradation centre (marine), Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Visakhapatnam.

  • Raji, B., and O.K. Remadevi.  (2004  ). Insect diversity in mangroves along the westcoast of India.Contributions to bio sciences, felicitation volume. 77-87.

Mangrove  forests are among the worlds most productive and biologically diverse ecosystems.  The faunal composition especially that of insects, in the mangroves along the coasts of the Indian mainland has not been studied.  Hence, a detailed study was undertaken to document the entomofauna of mangroves along the coast of Kerala, Karnataka and Goa.  A total of 150  species  belonging to 52 families of 10 orders were founding the mangals of the west coast.   The trophic composition of the insect component of the mangroves was analyzed.  The study revealed that in addition to a few species that are exclusive to this ecosystem, mangroves also harbour a few pests of agricultural crops and other forest tree species.  The  insect population was monitored bimonthly using a sticky trap and the diversity computed.  The observations are discussed in this paper.

 

Raji, and O.K. Remadevi. (2005). Entomofaunal diversity in the mangrove forest of west coast (South India). Annals of Forestry 13(2): 323-331.

 

Mangrove fauna is diverse with an abundance  of invertebrate forms.  However, work on the insect community of mangroves in the Indian mainland. Especially along the west coast, is patchy.  The present study has therefore been carried out on insect diversity in Mangrove forest along the west coast and a comprehensive  list of insects prepared for the first time from this region.  A total of 341 species of insects belonging to 122 families of 11 orders have been recorded.  Of this, 201 have been identified up to generic level.  The orders Coleoptera,  Diptera and Lepidoptera constituted the major groups in the collection.  The taxonomic composition of the insect community has also been analysed.

 

Keywords: Insect diversity, taxonomic composition, mangroves, west coast, south  India.

  

CHEMISTRY OF FOREST PRODUCTS

 

312.Shankaranarayana K.H. (1988).   Removal of unsaponifiables from sandal seed oil and fatty acid composition of seed coat.  Van vigyan, 26, 43.

 

Fatty oils possessing an exorbitant amount of unsaponifiable matter (USM) are commercially disadvantageous.  The seeds of Santalum album L. contain 55- 60% of a drying oil highly rich in USM (7-17%). For the removal of USM 10 gm sandal seed oil (USM 8.8%) was dissolved in 100 ml ethylacetate (EA) and shaken with 2 x40 ml  precooled 10% aqueous sodium hydroxide.  The alkaline layer was drawn off and re-extracted with 4 x 40 ml EA. On cooling the EA solutaion (washed earlier with 4 x 100 ml cold water), a white waxy stuff separated out.  After filtration, the solvent was evaporated to get 9.1 gm oil (USM 0.25%). Also, in order to determine the fatty  acids in sandal seed coat, these were extracted sequentially with petroleum ether and methanol.  Chromatography of the petrol extract (25% yield) on silica gel gave in benzene elute 16% liquid fatty oil composed of palmitic 34% oleic 44% and santalbic 20.3% while the methanol extract 6% yield) gave in petroleum ether: ethylacetrate (9:1) elute, 1.2 % semisolid fatty oil, which analysed for:  palmitic 45% oleic 52% and santalbic 1.8%.

 

Key words: Unsaponifiable matter (USM), ethyl acetate (EA), chromatography, palmitic, semi solid fatty oil, santalbic

 

313.Shankaranarayana K.H.(1988) A note on  nardenisation of sandal concrete.Van Vigyan 26, 44

 

Nardenisation  is a process of  separation of terpenic components by shaking with 2 immiscible solvents. This method can be used to to get sandalwood oil rich in santalol without steam distillation. It is noteworthy to mention that the nardenised oil did not contain the less odorous santalenes

 

Key words: Nardenisation, methanolic, immiscible,

 

314.Shankaranarayana K.H. and B.S. Kamala (1988) Effect of steam pressure on the yield  and quality of HESP Ind. Perfu., 32, 218-219

 

Spent sandalwood powder obtained from sandal oil factory on acidolytic treatment gave oil which is not confirming the characteristics with those of HESP oil. The yield of oil here is varied between 0.27 - 0.47% ( slightly pungent, warm, sharp and less interesting. With this, it appears that the factory grade spent sandalwood powders are not good enough to yield the desired HESP oil.   

 

Key words: Hydrolysis, acronym, Hydrolysed Exhausted Sandalwood Powder (HESP)

 

315.Angadi, V.G. B.S. Kamala and S.N. Rai. (1988) Effect of deficiency of trace elements on leaf area, chlorophyll level and photosynthetic efficiency in tree seedlings. Myforest, 24, 124-128.

 

Reduction in leaf area, decrease in chlorophyll activity and photosynthetic efficiency of the leaves of Cassia, Eucalyptus, Honne, Mahogany, Neem, Rosewood, Sandal and Teak suffering under deficiency of tree elements  copper, zinc, manganese, molybdenum and boron, compared to control could be taken as a diagnostic factor to identify deficiency symptoms.

 

Key words: Chlorophyll, photosynthetic, chlorosis.

 

316.Kamala, B.S., V.G. Angadi and S.N. Rai, (1988) Symptoms of deficiency  of trace elements and the associated changes of peroxidase isoenzyme pattern in the seedlings of rose wood, Honne, Cassia and Neem. My Forest, 24, 307-311

 

Symptoms of deficiency of Copper, Zinc, Manganese, Molybdenum and Boronand the associated changes in the peroxidase isoenzyme pattern in the seedlings of Rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia), Honne (Pterocarpus marsupium), Cassia (Cassia siamea) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) were studied.

 

Key words: Trace elements, Deficiency, Peroxidase isoenzyme.

  

317.Shankaranarayana K.H., B.S. Kamala (1989),  Fragrant products from less odorous sandal oil, Perfu and Flavourist, 14, 19-20

 

A less odorous sandal wood oil on esterification with capronic or cinnamic or isobutyric acids has yielded fragrant products and hence value addition.

 

Keywords: santalol, cinnamic acid

 

318.Anantha padmanabha H.S., K.H. Shankarayanarya and H.C. Nagaveni (1989),Compositional changes in sandal seeds on storage, Ind J. of For, 12(2),157- 158

 

A possible change in amino acid, fatty acid and protein composition in the sandal seeds on its prolonged storage can cause loss of viability and decrease in germination percentage. 

 

Keywords: polysaturated, germinability

 

319.Shankaranarayana K.H, B.S. Kamala (1989), Six new essential  oils from waste plant  materials, Ind. Perfu,  33 (1), 40-43

 

A new and odoriferous products have been obtained from waste plant material which may find immense utility in fragrant industry.

 

  • Shankaranarayana K.H, S.H. Jain B.S. Kamala 91990).  Fatty acid and mineral composition of seeds from young and mature sandal trees. Ind. J. of Forestry 13.250-251

 

The seeds from young sandal trees(age around 10 years) are as much potentially rich in fatty oil, proteins and minerals as the seeds from mature trees( age more than 30 years). Deoiled seed meal, made from even young trees could be of utility as an animal food stuff.

 

  • Desai, V.B. and K.H. Shankaranarayana (1990), Utilization of sandal seed oil, Research  and Industry, 35, 232-233

 

Sandal seeds (Santalum album L.) could be collected in huge quantities and they have not been put to any use so far.  An overall picture of the possible areas.  Where the seed oil of sandal could potentially exploited is presented.  Sandal seed oil could be of significant utility in surface coatings, varnish, rubber, detergent and pharmaceutical industries.  On pharmacological screening the oil exhibited diuretic, antitremorogenie, antiviral and hypotensive activities.

 

  • Shankaranarayana K.H, S.H. Jain, B.S. Kamala (1990) Fatty acid and mineral composition of seeds seeds from young and mature sandal seeds Ind. J.of Forestry 13, 250-251

 

The seeds from young sandal trees ( age around 10 years)  a45re as much potentially rich in fatty oil, proteins and minerals as seeds from mature trees ( age more than 30 years). Deoiled seed meal made from even young trees could be of utility as an animal food stuff.  

 

  • Desai V.B, Rajeeva D Hiremath, V.P. Rasal, Deepak N Gaikwad and K.H.Shankaranarayana (1991), On the pharmacological screening of HESP and  sandalwood oils Ind Perfumer, 35(2), 69-70

   

Various pharmacological activities were found to be exhibited by HESP and sandalwood oil on its pharmacological screening in the experimental animals. 

 

  • Shivaramakirshnan V.R., H.S. Ananthapadmanabha, Santhakumaran, K.H.Shankaranarayana B.S. Kamala, (1991) Efficacy of certain organic and inorganic chemicals as wood preservatives , My Forest, 27-155-260

           

Efficacy of some inorganic and organic chemicals were studied against wood rotting fungi. These chemicals are easily available, non toxic and therefore have great potential as wood preservatives,

 

  • Krishnan, R.V., K.S.Theagarajan, H.S. Ananthapadmanabha, M.Nagaraja Sharma, V.V. Prabhu, H.C.Nagaveni (1993).  Biocidal property of the phenolic fraction of ethanol extractives of Hopea parviflora heartwood. IRG/ WP 93-3003

 

Natural durability of Hopea parviflora was found to be very good. Perishable woods like Mangifera indica and Gyrocarpus jacuini were treated with ethanol soluble heartwood extractives and exposed to wood rotting fungi under laboratory conditions and for termites under field conditions. Treated wood samples showed considerable enhanced resistance to fungi and termites. This may be due to the presence of higher content of organo-soluble extractives in the wood.

 

  • Sindhuveerendra, H.C., H.S.Ananthapadmanabha and K.H. Shankara Narayana.(1993). Evaluation of "TEMD"- a new compound as an antibacterial compound.The Indian Forester. 119: 11: 946-947.

 

An attempt was made to eliminate the bacteria and fungi on wood by treating with Tetra Ethanol Methylene Diamine(TEMD), which was obtained from combination of Diethanol amine and Formaldehyde. The result suggested that the aqueous solution of TEMD can be exploited as a good antibacterial agent against the virulent species Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis.

 

  • Nagaveni, H.C, D.Venmalar, K.H. Shankaranarayana and G.Ravikumar. (2003). Improvised creosote- SVC (Steam Volatile Creosote) and its efficacy on biodegradation.  Proceedings of National Workshop on Wood Preservatives in India: Opportunities and Strategies, IWST, Bangalore: 62-68.

 

Creosote or coal tar creosote is most successfully and commonly used wood preservative throughout the world with good service life of 30-50 years.  But, it has certain disadvantages like obnoxious odour, unpleasant colour and unpaintability.  Sometimes bleeding from treated wood creates harm and nuisance to environment.  Creosote oil was steam distilled to get clean and less odorous steam volatile product (SVC).  The yield was 30% and its chemical composition was identified by HPLC.  Acridine, 2 methyl naphtalene, acenaphthne and O-xylene were among the chemical constituents identified in the steam volatile creosote.  The efficacy of this SVC was investigated against wood rotters, mould and stain fungi and termites and was fond to be effective as natural creososte but with added advantages like improved colour and lessened obnoxious odour.  The method of obtaining SVC is economical and it is effective as natural creosote with the advantages of improved colour, odour and clarity for application as wood preservative against perishable timbers like mango, rubberwood etc.

 

  • Angadi, V.G, and K.S. Theagarajan (1992) Utilisation of forest biomass (i) Hydroloysis of saw dust. My Forest, 28(1), 118-122.

 

Different methods of hydrolysis such as acid and steam hydrolysis were tried using saw dust as a sorce of forest bio mass with a view to to finding out the optimum conditions for maximum yield of reducing sugars.  

 

  • V.G. Angadi and K.S. Theagarajan (1993) Enzymatic sacharification of saw dust.J.Ind. Acad. Wood Sci., 24(2), 63-66.

 

Commercial cellulase and cellulase obtained from Trichoderma viride were used to hydrolyse saw dust.Ten days and fourteen days culture were found to be more effective than five days culture of T.viride. Maxium  saccharification was obtained after 48 hours of incubation period.  It was 42.72% in case of commercial enzyme and 47.40% in case of crude enzyme.  The sugars thus obtained can be made use of to prepare value added products.

 

Shankaranarayana K.H, V.V. Prabhu and K.S. Theagarajan (1993), DARSE- a new essential oil from acidic alcohol extract of Red sanders, Indian Perfumer, 37(2), 208

 

Hydrolysis of red sanders wood powder using acidified alcohol followed by steam distillation has yielded new essential oil of 1.8 to 2.2 %. The name given to new oil is "DARSE" ( Distilled Acidified Red Sanders Extract ).

 

Shankaranarayana et al (1995), Sandal oil estimation in small quantity of material, Associated Publishing  company, New Delhi 10(35), 275-   278.

 

Sandal oil quantity in different coloured heartwood have been correlated b with colour of heart wood ( brown, light brown, dark brown and yellow).

 

Kamala, B.S, V.G. Angadi, A.N. Rajeevalochan, K.S. Theagarajan, C.R. Sarma (1995), Effect of application of trace elements on seedling growth  of forestry species. My Forest  31(4), 53-55.

 

Statistical analysis of data on height growth revealed (as shown in Table-1) that the effect of trace elements on growth is differing  significantly in the seedlings of Casuarinas, Neem and Eucalyptus and no significant difference was observed between the effects of trace elements on the growth of S.mahogany seedlings (Table-1)

 

Seedlings of all species without the application of trace elements are however found to have least growth in height.  This study points to the beneficial trace elements to seedlings.  This study also illustrates specific effect of individual trace elements on growth and biomass of seedling of different species and the finding can be made use of in nurseries to boost the growth of seedlings in a short time.

 

Shankaranarayana, K.H, V.G. Angadi, A.N. Rajeevalaochan, K.S. Theagarajan, C.R.Sarma and C.R. Rangaswamy (1997). A rapid method   of estimating essential oil content in heartwood of  santalum album Linn. Current Science., 72, 241-242.

 

A new, simple and quicker method has been developed for estimation of sandal oil in a small quantity of heartwood material. The method is fairly accurate by using UV spectrophotometer, measuring optical density (O.D) at 219 nm (Max) on hexane extract of sandalwood powder.  

 

  • Vineet Kumar, K.H. Shankaranarayana and K.S. Theagarajan. (1997) On the isolation of santalinus from Red Sanders. Wood News,  7 (1), 42-45 

 

Santalins, the pigments of red sanders wood have been isolated using simple  extraction and crystallisation techniques in 5% yield and spectroscopically  examined.  The method used is of interest to dyeing and pharmaceutical industry.

 

  • Theagarajan K.S., K.H. Shankaranarayana , V.V. Prabhu G.Ravikumar and A.N.Rajeevalochan. (1997) Jinghan- A partial substitute for Jigat in Agarabathi Manufacture.  Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research ,  56, 106-108.

 

Agarbathi making  is one of the oldest and prominent cottage industries providing employment to weaker sections of both urban  and rural people, especially women  Total production of agarbathi in the country during 1992-93 in terms of value was about Rs. 150 crores.  Exports of  Agarbathi fetched Rs. 49.1 crores during 1994-95 of which 80% is from Southern region.  Production and export performance of agarabathi industry depends on availability of forest based raw materials viz., bamboo, charcoal, "Jigat" sandalwood, Halmaddi etc. Indiscriminate collection is leading to overexploitation and shortage of raw materials particularly, "Jigat"- the basic binding material whichis the bark of slow growing evergreen  tree Machilus macrantha. Amongst the various plant materials screened, Lannea coromandelica syn. Odina wodier (Moyna or Jinghan) gum in combination with "Jigat" in 1:1 ratio was found to be a good partial substitute and agaribathis rolled using this mixture costs 20 percent less than those rolled with pure "Jigat".

 

  • Shankaranarayana K.H., G.Ravaikumar, C.R. Rangaswamy and K.S.Theagarajan (1997). Oil in Depot- Based Sap Wood of Sandal. My Forest.   3(3), 581-582

 

The present study indicates that dressing of sandal logs in depots for the separation of heartwood is to be improved so that no heartwood is left with the sapwood while dressing.  On the contrary, leaving a thin layer of sapwood around the periphery of heartwood does not in any way affect the odor and quality of sandalwood oil.

 

  • Theagarajan K.S., K.H. Shankaranarayana and Vineetkumar (1997), Chemical modification of E hybrid oil, J.med and aromatic platn sciences, 19, 669- 671

 

Commercially unutilized oil from leaves of Eucalyptus hybrid can be modified by simple chemical reactions like acetylation, formylation, epoxidation and by treatments with acidic alcohol, selenium dioxide and p-toluence sulphonic acid to yield pleasant aroma products of perfumery value.

 

  • Kamala, B.S. and V.G. Angadi (1998).  Effect of deficiency of trace elements on the growth of Neem seedlings. Annals of Forestry, 6(2), 131-134.

 

Symptoms of deficiency of copper, zinc, manganese, molybdenum and boron and associated changes in peroxidase isoenzyme pattern, leaf area chlorophyll level and photosynthetic efficiency of leaves of neem seedlings grown in sand culture were studied at nursery stage by inducing deficiency of that particular element, over a period of one year.  Characteristic symptoms of deficiency of different individual trace elements were developed under experimental conditions. In respect of peroxidase isoenzyme, disappearance of two isoenzyme bands and appearance of a new band under all deficient element was observed under deficiency of Cu, Zn, Mn, Mo, and B as compared to control.  Reduction in leaf area(1.84 cm sq to 6.31 cm sq) compare to normal leaf 9.34 cm sq), decrease in chlorophyll level  (45 - 151 mg/100mg leaf tissue compare to control 316 mg /100mg leaf tissue) and photosynthetic efficiency (0.52 mg per cm sq. / second compare to control 1.1 mg / cm sq. /sec. ) in leaves was also noticed as a consequence of deficiency of micronutrients.  The above said attributes of neem seedlings can be taken as indicators of deficiency symptoms to bring back healthy and normal growth by application of that particular element to seedlings.

 

  • Shankaranayrayana K.H., G.Ravikumar, A.N. Rajeevalochan, K.S. Theagarajan and C.R. Rangaswamy (1998) Content and Composition of  oil from the central and transition zones of sandalwood disc. ACIAR  Proceedings No. 84-Sandal and its Products, 86.

 

In sandalwood disc (Santalum album L) oil content decreases across the diameter from central heartwood to " transition zone" (i.e. heartwood sapwood boundary) by about 70 per cent.  The chemical composition of oil obtained from central and transition zones of sandalwood disc differed significantly.  While the level of oxygenated constituents (santalols and santalyl acetate) was about three per cent higher in the transition zone, the level hydrocarbons (santalines) was 50 per cent lower.

 

  • Shankaranarayna K.H., G.Ravikumar, C.R. Rangaswamy and K.S.Theagarajan.(1998) Sandal wood, HESP and ESPO oils from the heart  wood of Santalum album L. ACIAR Proceedings NO. 84- Sandal and  its  products, 89.

 

 Heartwood of sandal (Santalum album L) on steam distillation yields 2.5-6.2 Per cent fragrant sandalwood oil of high perfumery value.  Devoid of sandal oil, the spent powder of sandalwood does not have any commercial value but it may be processed by using MEOH0HCI followed by steam distillation to get a new essential oil.  HESP (1.2 % yield) which has pharmacological properties.  Spent sandalwood powder can also be processed by dichromate oxidation followed by steam distillation to get ESPO oil (1.2% yield) which is quite different from sandalwood and HESP oils.  Infrared spectral and gas chromatographic profiles of sandalwood. HESP and ESPO oils are presented here.

 

  • Angadi V.G, S.Ramalakshmi, C.R. Rangaswamy and K.S. Theagarajan (1998).Isoenzyme Technique- A powerful tool in research on sandal ACIAR Proceedings  No. 84-Sandal and its products, 130

 

Variation in isoenzyme pattern of seed  tissue  of different provenances in sandal (Santalum album L) is reported.  Isoenzyme techniques used in sandal research for characterization of phenotypes, development of biochemical marker for oil-bearing capacity and usefulness of technique are discussed.

 

  • Shankaranarayana K.H, G.Ravikumar, C.R. Rangaswamy and K.S.Theagrajan (1998), Sandalwood, HESP and ESPO oils from the heart wood of Santalum album L. ACIAR Proceedings No. 84-Sandal and its products, 89.

 

Heartwood  of sandal (Santalum album L.) on steam distillation yields 2.5-6.2 per cent fragrant sandalwood oil of high perfumery value.  Devoid of sandal oil, the spent powder of sandalwood does not have any commercial value but may be processed by using MOEH-HCI followed by steam distillation to get a new essential oil, HESP (1.2% yield), which has pharmacological properties.  Spent sandalwood powder can also be processed by dichromate oxidation followed by steam distillation to get ESPO oil 91.2% yield) which is quite different from sandalwood and HESP oils.  Infrared spectral and gas chromatographic profiles of sandalwood HESP and ESPO oils  are presented here.

  • Ramalakshmi, S., and C.R. Rangaswamy (1998) Physiological variation in seeds of provenances of sandal (Santalum album L.). ACIAR  Proceedings   No. 84-Sandal and its products, 121

 

Physiological variation exists in seeds as well as morphological variation.  The germination test in which seeds are actually induced to germinate and commence growth is by far the most dependable method of assessing the viability of a simple of seeds.  Moisture content of seeds during storage is the most influential factor affecting their longevity.;  This paper describes the variation in physiological aspects of seeds of Santalum album L. from various provenances Maradagadde, Thangli (Karnataka), Marayoor (Kerala )and Chitteri (Tamil Nadu)

 

  • Shankaranarayana, K.H. et.al.(1998) Prevention of leaching of colouring matter from the wood of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. My Forest 34(4),  913-915

 

wood, a good timber for building construction has water soluble colouring matter.  It causes dis clouration on the adjoining surfaces, Arresting this discoloration is possible with the use of common inorganic salts such as CuSo4 , K2Cr2O7, ZnCl2, CuCl2, and CrO3 in combination.

 

  • Jain S.H., V.G. Angadi, G.Ravikumar, K.S. Theagarajan and K.H.Shankaranarayana  (1999), Studies on cultivation and chemical utilization of Sandal (santalum album L) F.A.F.A.I Journal, 1(3), 49- 53.

 

Sandal (Santalum alubm L) is indigenous to peninsular India.  It is distributed naturally over 9600 km2, mainly in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.  Sandal is capable of growing on all types of soils.  Phenological, morphological and genetic variations were reported in eight identified potential provenances.  Present method of cultivation, field planting, silvicultural and management practices, heartwood formation, yield and revenue were discussed.   The fragrant heartwood is used for carving and religious purposes and the essential oil from it is used in perfumery and cosmetics.  The oil contains 90% of  Santalols and has been the prime focus in fragrances industry.  A non destructive rapid method of estimating sandal oil content in heartwood (core samples) was developed.  HESP and ESPO- two new aroma oils have been prepared from spent sandal powder.  Large demand for wood and oil in domestic and international market has prompted for over exploitation illegally and has led to depletion and genetic erosion. The Royal aroma tree needs to be protected in addition to large scale commercial cultivation and introduction in agroforestry to meet increasing demand and arrest escalating price.

                                           

  • Shankaranarayana, K.H, K.S. Theagarajan, G.Ravikumar and A.N.Rajeevalochan (1999).  Importance and utility of sazndalwood extractives.F.A.F.A.I Journal 1(4), 65-67.

 

Besides highlighting the prominence of extractives in woody species, the article brings out comprehensive processing of extractives of Sandal heartwood.  Sandal heartwood yields about 10% of extractives in which steam volatile oil (Sandal wood) is around 50 to 60% and the remaining is non stem volatile matter.  After isolating sandalwood oil, the non-odorous non steam volatiles can be chemically processed by ethanol-HCI and potassium dichromate- H2 SO4 and steam distillation of secure 0.8-1.2% new fragrant oils-HESP and ESPO- which are currently examined in aroma industries for commercial exploitation.

 

  • Shankaranarayana K.H., K.S.Theagarajan (2000). Recent development in chemistry and utilization of sandalwood, Wood News, 17-20

 

Sandalwood is the fragrant heartwood of Santalum album Linn. The tree is mainly exploited for its heartwood which yeilds the famous East Indian sandalwood oil by steam distillation.  The heartwood is one of the best woods for intricate carving and tuning and about 5% of annual production of wood is being used for this purpose.  Age of heartwood influences the quality and content of oil.  A simple non-destructive, rapid, UV spectroscopic method was developed to estimate oil content of living trees, by taking core samples of heartwood.  Sapwood of sandal from sandalwood depot still contains 0.4% to 6% of oil due to over dressing of sandal logs.  It finds use in agarbathis, carving, turning and toy making.  Sandalwood oil is used in soap, perfumery, cosmetic and agarbathi industries.  Fixative property and tenacious aroma of the oil are mainly due to (α and β santalols (C15 H24 O) constituting about 90% of oil.  Exhausted sandalwood powder on hydrolysis and oxidation yields new essential oils (HESP and ESPO)  (about 1%) which are different from natural steam distilled sandal oil.  These new oils are of industrial utility.

 

  • Shankaranarayana K.H., G.Ravikumar, K.S. Theagarajan (2000) New essential oils from exhausted sandalwood powder, Journal of Non timber  Forest Products 233-234

 

Heartwood of sandal (Santalum album L) on steam distillation yields 2.5 to 6.2% fragrant sandalwood oil of high  perfumery value.  Devoid of sandal oil , the spent (exhausted) sandalwood powder does not have any commercial value.  But it may be processed by  using separately MeOH-HCL, EtOH-HCT and K2Cr2O7- H2SO4 to secure new essential oils, viz., HESP-HESP II and ESPO respectively in 0.5 to 0.7% yield  which are quite  different in aroma and composition from sandalwood oil.  Cost factors involved in the small scale production of these new oils are furnished.

 

  • Theagarajan, K.S. K.H. Shankaranarayana, G.Ravikumar and A.N.Rajeevalochan (2000) Value added products from Eucalyptus hybrid oil, Journal of Non timber Forest Products 7 (3 & 4), 235-236.

 

Eucalyptus hybrid (mostly E.teriticornis) leaf oil is a mixture of mainly pinene, cineole and p-cymene and is not put to any major use.  Pleasant smelling oils of perfumery value were prepared from this oil by treating with less expensive laboratory chemicals resulting in value addition of this practically under utilized oil of large potential availability.  The modified oils will be useful in perfumery and cosmetics.

  • Theagarajan, K.S. K.H. Shankaranarayana (2000). Chemical and utilization studies on E hybrid oil, F.A. F.A.I Journal, 2(1), 37-38.

Eucalyptus has been most successful among several fast growing species as it   can grow on a variety of soil and climate.  With short felling cycles lot of foliage will be available for distillation of oil, when the trees are harvested with proper planning E.hybrid oil can be utilized as such or after converting to value added fragrant products in perfumery and cosmetic industries. Rational utilization of the essential oil whose potential availability is not fully unutilized in our country deserves serious consideration.

  • Shankaranarayana, K.H. G.Ravikumar and C.R. rangaswamy (2001) Isolation of santalols from sandalwood.  Indian perfumer, 45(2), 79-80

Major odoriferous constitutents, santalols (alpha and beta isomers), have been isolated in pure form by simple column chromatographic method of sandalwood oil on argentized alumina.  Santalols are of importance in qualitative studies on sandalwood oil.

  • Ravikum,ar, G, V.G. Angadi, A.N. Rajeevalochan, S.H. Jain, K.T. Chandrashekar and K.H. Shankaranarayana (2001) Viscosity measurement as a quality test method for jigat. Presented in seminar  on "Agarbathi beyond 2000" organized by  All India agarbathi  manufactures association Bangalore.

The adhesive quality of jigat commonly used as important binder in agarbathi manufacture can be evaluated in terms of viscosity measurement on 5% aqueous solution.  Viscosity in the range of 75 to 90 c.poise was found to be good adhesive binder for agarbathi.  Jigat bark powder viscosity in the range of 60 to 70 c.poise  was found to be poor quality  in terms of adhesive property.

  • Shankaranarayana, K.H. V.G. Angadi, S.H. Jain, G.Ravikumar, K.T.Chandrashekar,(2001) World Bank Document- Research on Sandal- Identification of provenances of sandal in India for genetic conservation.

Research outputs of world bank project - "Research on sandal:  identification of provenances of sandal in India for genetic conservation" were documented

  • Shankaranarayana K.H, G.Ravikuamr and K.B. Patil (2002). Aroma enriched products from less odorous sandalwood oil fraction of the industry.F.A.F.A.I 4(2), 39-40

Reduction in santalene content and conversion of santalol into different oxygenated components have been the sailent features of two chemical modification methods adopted on the less odorous sandalwood oil fraction which is obtained  as a forerunner, not contributing to characteristic odour of sandalwood oil, during the steam distillation of oil in the industry.  The cost of chemicals used in the chemical modification was ranging between Rs. 250 to Rs. 425/- per kilogram of less odorous sandal oil fraction.

  • Shankaranarayana K.H., V.G. Angadi, S.H. Jain, Ravikumar  G, K.S. Reddy and K.S. Rao (2002) Evaluation of quality parameters for sandal and jigat.Presented in the workshop on "Fast growing and high yielding selected cultivars on NTFP's including medicinal plants" held at  IWST, Bangalore.

A simple UV spectroscopic method has been developed for screening of sandal (Santalum album L) plants for their oil content.  The adhesive quality of Jigat (Persea macrantha) commonly used as important binder in agarbathi manufacture can be evaluated in terms of viscosity measurement on 5% aqueous solution.  Jigat bark solution having a viscosity in the range of 75-90 c.poise was found to be a good binder for agarbathis.

  • Angadi V.G., G.Ravikumar, A.N. Rajeevalochan, P.Kumar and K.H.Shankaranarayan (2002) UV-Specroscopic method for identifying high cineole yielders in Eucalyptus hybrid oil samples . F.A.F.A.I , 4(2),37-38

A new UV-spectroscopic method has been developed for identifying high cineole yielders in Eucaluptus hybrid oil samples.  The positive correlation was established between optical density and cineole content. The developed method will be useful in identifying eucalyptus oil samples for high/low cineole content.

  • Angadi, V.G., S.H. Jain, A.N. Rajeevalochan, G.Ravikumar and K.H .Shankaranarayana  (2002). A note on peroxidase reagents to distinguish between high and low yielders of sandal in the field.  Sandalwood   Research Newsletter,7.

A single less expensive peroxidase colour reaction has been developed todistinguish high and low yielders of Sandal in the field.

  • Angadi V.G., S.H. Jain and K.H. Shankaranarayana (2003) Genetic Diversity between sandal population of different provenances in India. Sandal  Research Newsletter

Genetic distance between sandal (Santalum album L) populations of different provenances has been studied using isoenzyme data.  Results show that there is a gap in genetic distance between eight identified provenances of sandal which indicates that they are of separate varieties or races, thus further confirming their status.

  • Jain, S.H., Angadi, V.G. and K.H. Shankaranarayana (2003) Edaphic environmental and genetic factors associated with growth and adaptability of santalin provenances Sandalwood Research Newsletter, 6-7

Sandal tree grows under different edaphic and eco climatic conditions. Considering large genetic distance between provenances.  IT is concluded that  under diverse locality factors sandal adapts very well in terms of growth, heartwood and oil content.

  • Jain S.H, V.G. Angadi, K.H. Shankaranarayana and G.Ravikumar (2003) Relationship between girth and percentage of oil in trees of sandal provenances.Sandalwood Research Newsletter, 4.

In three provenance areas of sandal viz., Bangalore. Thangh (Karnataka) and Maryoor (Kerala) studies have been made in respect of GBH and oil. IT was observed that percentage of oil remains nearly constant at 4% after 80cm girth and that rise in oil percentage beyond 80cm girth was found to be just marginal.

  • Theagarajan K.S,V.V.Prabhu,K.H.Shankaranarayana and G.Ravikumar  (2004),Physico chemical characteristics of wavy and straight grained  Red  sanders, Ind.Acad, Wood Science,1, 7.

Pterocarpus santalinus popularly known as Red sanders (Lalchandan or Rakthachandan) belongs to the family Leguminous and has a restricted natural distribution only in the dry deciduous forests of South India especially in 
Cuddapah, Chittoor  and Kurnool districts of Andhra Pradesh and to a limited extent in adjoining areas of Tamil Nadu.This deciduous tree grows on dry hilly and rocky terrain at elevations of 150-900 m. Its timber is hard, refractory, durable and heavily impregnated  with red dye composed mainly of polyphenolic pigments which as santalinus et., The wood extract has medicinal properties and  is used in ayurvedic medicine for treatment of diseases due to vata, kapha, raktha, bile etc. Till the end of eighteenth century it was mainly  exported for its red dye which  was in great demand in Europe and U.K of late it is mostly exported to Japan ostensibly for making a musical instrument called "Shamisen".  Wavy nature is visible only when the tree is 12-15 years old, and it is identified by blazing the base of the trunk of a well grown tree with a sharp knife or axe, Hence, both wavy and straight grained wood are examined for differences, if any in the physco chemical characteristics and chemical composition.

  • Remadevi, O.K., K.S. Theagarajan, K.S. (2000). Use of the oil of  Eucalyptus tereticornis as a weedicide against parthernium hysterophorus L.  FAFAI journal, 2(1): 29-31

Parthenimum hysterophorus L. is an exotic weed which causes environmental hazards and is a menace in the agricultural fields and plantations.  Many methods including chemical and biological control using Zygogramma bicolorata, have proved less effective. The allelopathic principles in eucalyptus were found very effective in suppressing the weed.  Eucalyptus tereticornis which is used in large scale afforestation programmes, yields 1-1.5% essential oil, which is not industrially exploited in a large scale.  The spraying of oil (5%) and also its high boiling fraction were found very effective in killing the growing tips of the plants along with flowers and fruits within few hours of spraying.  The potential of the oil in the management of parthenium is discussed and its utilization for weed suppression in agricultural and forestry fields is recommended.

  • Sanjai Mohan,  Assessment of fruit characters in Garcinia Cambogia and gender identification of economically important forestry species using isozyme studies.My Forest 4(2A) 269-271.

A simple field oriented method has been developed for identification of the gender of two very important NTFP species, which are dioecious in nature.  A field kit has been developed and the procedure evolved for gender identification is user friendly and can be carried out by front line staff with a little training.  Farmers and forest department have been raising these species in the plantation without the knowledge of  gender of the sapling and with predetermined gender (by this method) more economically useful plantations can be raised with proper planning.  A ratio of one male to five female could be maintained which is appropriate for proper pollination and could yield the maximum output as only female bears the all important fruits.

  • Shankaranarayana, K.H., G.Ravikumar, V.G. Angadi, T.S. Rathore. (2006). Cineole rich clone in Eucalyptus tereticornis of pharmaceutical importance.   Twenty five best performing clones of Eucalyptus tereticornis were planted in July 1998 at Nagaroor nursery  of IWST, Bangalore.

By chemical examination of the leaves obtained from three year old trees for their oil content and chemical constituents,  it was found that the leaf sample from one particular cone (C-4) contained 2.8- 2.9 percent of oil and  82-84.1 percent of cineole.  Considering the remarkable adaptability, rapid growth of E.terticornis and wide applications of cineole-rich Eucalyptus oil in  pharmaceutical products the reported clone would be of special interest both for propagation and utility in the pharmaceutical field.

  • Shankaranarayana, K.H., G.Ravikumar, V.G. Angadi, T.S. Rathore. (2006).  Cineole richclone in Eucalyptus tereticornis of pharmaceutical  importance. Journal of Natural Remidies, 6/1,  96-98.

Twenty five best performing clones of Eucalyptus tereticornis were planted in July 1998 at Nagaroor nursery of IWST, Bangalore. By chemical examination of the leaves obtained from three year old trees for their oil content and chemical constituents, it was found that the leaf sample from one particular clone (C-4) contained 2.8-2.9 percent of oil and 82-84.1 percent of cineole.  Considering the remarkable adaptability, rapid growth of E.tereticornis and wide applications of cineole-rich Eucalyptus oil in pharmaceutical products - the reported clone would be of special interest both for propagation and utility in the pharmaceutical field.

 

WOOD ENERGY

  • Sanjai Mohan. (2005). Estimation of demand and supply of fuelwood and other available biomass in two districts of eastern plains of Karnataka. My Forest, Vol.41 (2), 157-159.

A detailed analysis of the availability and consumption pattern of biomass based fuel in the rural and urban areas of Kolar and Tumkur districts of Karnataka has been carried out. Survey of two districts in Karnataka (Kolar and Tumkur) was carried out and data collected from these districts were compiled and analyzed with respect to (i) per capita fuelwood consumptions in villages and (ii) distribution of the fuelwood and other biomass consumption pattern according to land holding of the farmer, economic status of the farmer and distance from forest.  Estimated per capita consumption of fuelwood in rural areas of Tumkur and Kolar districts of Karnataka were 1.79 and 1.63 kg/day, respectively whereas per capita consumption in urban areas was 0.13 kg/day for both the districts. In urban areas, per capita fuelwood consumption decreases with increase in the population of town. It was found that agriculture waste forms an important source of fuel in rural areas. Dependence on forest is much less than was envisaged. Source of wood fuel is farm forestry/trees on roadside, on bunds and marginal land.

  • Ajmal Samani, K. K. Pandey and K. S. Reddy. (2003). Economics of biomsass energy conversion systems. Wood News, Vol. 13, 22-23.

Economic analysis of different biomass energy systems (direct combustion, carbonization, gasification and biogas production), and comparison of effective heat and cost effectiveness of wood and other fuels are presented.

  • Ajmal Samani, K. K. Pandey, D. P. Khali, and K. S. Reddy. (2001). Energy and chemicals from biomass.My Forest,  Vol 37(3), 581-592

Energy is an important input in the process of development.  In fact, the level of development is generally measured by per capita energy consumption.  The most convenient energy source, the fossil fuels are fast depleting due to rapid growth in population and urbanization and its large scale use is contributing a lot to global warming.  The other energy sources are being worked up to improve and enhance them as alternate sources as well as to save the environment.  One such renewable source of energy is biomass.  Huge quantity of biomass is produced and replenished each year as a result of photosynthesis.  Apart from this, huge quantities of biomass wastes are generated by agricultural, household, institutional and industrial activities of men.  This available biomass contain significant amount of energy and have potential to be used as an alternative energy source.  The present paper discusses the availability of biomass in India and means of its effective conversion into useful energy by different thermo chemical and biological processes.

  • Krishna K.Pandey, Correlation between changes in colour and chemical composition during photo-degradation of wood surfaces. (2005). Paper presented in 36th Annual Meeting Bangalore, IRG/WP 05-40301

Changes in colour of wood (yellowing) during photo degradation or weathering reflect chemical changes in wood.  Therefore, the relationship between changes in chemical composition and CIELAB colour parameters is very important to characterize photodegradation of lignocellulosic surfaces.  In this study, the changes in chemical composition and yellowing due to photo- degradation was studied  by exposing wood surfaces of Pinus roxburghii (chir pine) to a xenon source.  Changes in chemical composition were monitored by measuring IR and fluorescence spectra and were correlated with colour changes.  A  linear correlation between degradation  of lignin and total colour change (DE was observed)

  • Pandey, K.K. A  note on the influence of extractives on the photo-discoloration and photo degradation of wood.  (2005).  Polymer degradation and stability 87 (2005) 175-379.

The effect of the presence of extractives  on color changes (photo-discoloration ) and photo-degradation of wood surfaces of Acacia auriculaeformis due to UV-visible irradiation has been examined.  Un extracted and extractive free specimens were irradiated with a 1000  watt xenon source in a weather-o-meter and exposed surfaces were analysed  for color and chemical changes.  Extractive free specimens exhibited a monotonous increase in color change with increasing irradiation time.  Un extracted wood surfaces showed a rapid color change at initial period of exposure which decreases upon prolonged exposure.  Analysis of color changes and FTIR spectra measured from irradiated wood surfaces indicate that presence of extractives increases rate of photo discoloaration and result in an apparent increase in rate  of delignification of wood surfaces in the initial period of exposure.  The apparently increased rate of delignification in unexrated wood has been explained on the bases of photo-degradation of polyphenolic extractives present in wood.

  • Pandey, K.K., Photo-discoloration and degradation of wood and its stabilization by modification with benzoyl chloride. (2004).Paper prepared for the 35th annual meeting IRG/WP 04-40274.

Photo degradation of Pinus roxburghii (chir pine) and Hevea brasiliensis (rubber wood) was studied under artificial accelerated weathering conditions ina xenon test chamber.  The irradiated samples were analyzed for colour changes and chemical changes.  Analysis of colour changes in wood surfaces by UV-Vis.  Irradiation was carried out using  a colour measuring (CIELAB) system and chemical changes were monitored using FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy.  Irradiation modified physical and chemical characteristics of wood surfaces and resulted  in rapid colour changes, reduction in lignin content and increased concentration of chromophoric groups on the wood surfaces.  Colour changes were correlated with formation of carbonyl groups and lignin decay rate determined by FTIR measurements.  Fluorescence emission spectra measured from un weathered wood shows excitation wavelength dependence.  Photo irradiation leads to a rapid reduction in the emission intensity, broadening of spectra and a significant red shift in the emission  maximum.  Photo stability of wood surfaces esterified with benzoyl chloride was also assessed.  The modification was characterized and analyzed by fluorescence and FTIR spectroscopy and photo-stability of modified wood was assessed.  Esterification of wood by benzoyl chloride suppressed the colour changes (photo-discoloration) and also reduced the lignin degradation and generation of carbonyl groups on irradiated wood surfaces.  Results show esterification of wood with benzoyl chloride was effective at inhibiting photo-degradation of wood polymers.

  • Pandey, K.K., N.Chandrashekar . Photostability of wood surfaces esterified by benzoyl chloride.   Journal of applied polymer science, 99, 2367-2374. 

An photostabilization of wood surfaces is desirable to enhance the life of wood under exterior use and to improve the performance of clear coatings  on wood surfaces.  Chemical modification of wood has been found effective in upgrading properties such as biological durability and dimensional stability and has been suggested as a potential way for inducing photostability on wood surfaces.  In this study the photostabiity of chemically modified wood was assessed under accelerated weathering conditions. Wood specimens of pinus roxburghii (chir pine) were esterified with benzoyl chloride to 19.5 wt% gain and exposed to a xenon are light source in a weather-meter for  different periods ranging from 0 to 500 h.  The irradiated samples were analyzed for color changes and chemical changes.  The analysis of color changes in wood surfaces by ultraviolet visible irradiation was carried out with a color measuring (CIELAB) system, and chemical changes were characterized with fluorescence and   fourier transform infrared spectros copy.   The estification of wood by benzoyl chloride suppressed the other changes (photodiscoloration) due to irradiation.  Modification also reduced the lignin degradation and generation of carbonyl groups on the surface of the irradiated wood.  The fluorescence emission spectra of irradiated unmodified wood showed a large reduction in intensity  and a large red shift in the emission maximum, whereas modified wood showed only a small change in fluorescence intensity on irradiation .  The results how that the estrification of wood with benzoyl chloride was effective for the photo stabilization of the wood polymers

 

SEED AND NURSERY TECHNOLOGY

  • Rai, S.N., H.C. Nagaveni and H.S. Anathapadmanabha. Germination and nursery technique of four species of Ficus. Indian Forester 114(2): 63-68.

Ficus bengalensis, F. glomerata, F. mysorences and F. religiosa seeds have the problem of germination and their survival.  Different methods were adopted for raising seedlings of these species with good success. It was observed that moderately ripe fruits which are brownish yellow in colour gave the best germination and soaking the seeds for 10 minutes in hot water at 60oC gave the highest germination per cent.  Taking care in transplantation of seedlings with proper shade help in getting maximum percentage of survival.

  • Ananthapadmanabha, H.S., H.C. Nagaveni, S.N. Rai. (1988). Dormancy principles in sandal seeds.  (Santalum album Linn). My Forest 24(1): 22-24.

Fresh sandal seeds exhibit dormancy for a period of two months. Gibberellic acid, hydrochloric acid, and sodium hydroxide treatment helps to enhance germination rate and percentage leaving behind the inhibitory substances in leachate, which was tested by seed germination. The seeds used for bioassay were green gram, wheat, Trigonella and decoated sandal seeds. Germination percentage of treated seeds with leachate was reduced which indicates that that sandal coat contains some inhibitory substance, which delays the germination.

 

  • Ananthapadmanabha, H.S., H.C. Nagaveni, S.N. Rai. (1988). Influence of host  plants on growth of sandal.  My Forest: 24(2): 154-160.

Sandal is a hemi root parasite. Association of host is required for its better growth. About 30 plant species of leguminous and non-leguminous plants were grown as host plant for the sandal in pot culture as well as in the field. Growth, biomass, photosynthetic activity, nutrient level, number of haustorial connections etc., were studied to see the effect of different host on growth pattern of sandal plants. Study helped to categorize the hosts as good, medium and bad based on performance of sandal plants.

  • Ananthapadmanabha, H.S., K.H. Shankaranarayana and H.C. Nagaveni.(1989).  Compositional changes in sandal seeds on storage.  Indian Journal of Forestry 12(2): 157-158.

The seeds of Santalum album contain 50-60% of drying oil, chiefly composed of poly-saturated fatty acids. It is reported that oil seeds having a large food reserve deteriorate more rapidly than the seeds with small reserve. Relative percentage of chemicals present in Amino acids and fatty acids with respect to viable and non-viable sandal seeds was studied. The level of essential amino acids, protein, acid value of fatty acid decreased in non-viable seed. The reduction in the seed viability and germination although primarily due to efficient enzyme activity, the marked changes in the level of amino acids and fatty components found in the stored seed also indicates the level of high viability.

  • Nagaveni, H.C, H.S. Ananthapadmanabha and S.N. Rai. (1989). Effect of different chemical on germination of sandal seeds (Santalum album Linn).My Forest: 25(4): 311-313.

 Fresh sandal seeds exhibit dormancy for a period of two months. Different chemicals used for breaking dormancy help either to stimulate or hasten germination by leaching out the inhibitory substances present on the seed coat or by direct or indirect action on the enzyme synthesis, which is necessary for the stimulation, or activating the embryo. About ten chemicals at different concentration and duration of treatment were tried to hasten germination. Result showed that 1 % hydrogen peroxide, 0.5% thio-urea, and 0.01% IAA may be used as substitute to gibberellic acid for obtaining quick and uniform germination in sandal seeds.

  • Nagaveni, H.C., and H.S. Ananthapadmanabha. (1989). Retention of viability in sandal (Santalum album) seeds.  Journal of Tree Science 1.

Sandal seeds  goods are viable for a period of 14 months normally, but viability can be extended beyond two years when the seeds are stored under carbon dioxide, nitrogen and iodine.

  • Sindhuveerendra, H.C., M.Sujatha and C.R. Sarma. (1991).  Variation studies in sandal (Santalum album L) II: Germination studies in relation to seed weight. My Forest : 27:1.

Sandal seeds show variation in size, germination percentage, rate and duration, which may reflects on adoptive variability of the species. Nine trees of different girth class were selected for collection of seeds from campus. Sandal seeds were weighed individually, and grouped into 3 major categories based on weight and germination percentage was calculated.  Germination rate was highly variable, suggesting that the germination was entirely depending on the genetic factors, which may reflects on their adoptive variability.

  • Ananthapadmanabha, H.S., G. Vijayalakshmi. (1994).Vegetative propagation of teak through branch cuttings and sprouts. Tree Breeding and Propagation news. 3 (2): 8-9.

Vegetative propagation of trees is straightforward method to produce genetically uniform planting material. In this paper the rooting response of branch cuttings and sprouts of Teak (Tectona grandis) as influenced by the application of auxins and seasonal variation is reported.

  • Srimathi, R.A., H.C. Nagaveni. (1995). Sandal seeds- Viability, germination and storage   Recent advances in research management of Sandal (Santalum album L) in India.   Edited by R.A.Srimathi, H.D.Kulkarni and KR. Venkatesan. Associated Publishing Co.,   New Delhi: 77-87.

Studies on sandal seeds have revealed that seeds collected during September-October and sown in April-may give maximum germination in minimum duration.  Seeds should be de-pulped and dried soon after collection for greater viability and germination.  Strong of seeds in the gunny bag and air tight storage is the cheapest and the best method up to 9 to 12 months. Seeds collected from younger and older trees have alike showing that age has no effect on the viability and germination.  To overcome dormancy and to hasten germination, either removal of outer seed coat on treatment with 0.05% gibberellic acid for 12 to 15 hours is found suitable. Studies on germination capacity of floating and sinking sandal seeds revealed that there are viable seeds among floating seeds and non-viable seeds in sunken ones.

  • Sindhuveerendra, H.C., (1995).  Variation studies in provenances of Azardirachta Indica (The neem tree). Indian Forester: 121(11):1053-1056.

An exploratory survey was undertaken and 10 provenances of neem were collected from Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh during June 1993.  Analysis of three characters i.e., seed length, width and seed weight revealed that good amount of genetic variability for those characters studied.  Ramanager "H" provenance represent highest value of range and lowest of C.V. for all three characters studied.  The highest C.V. for seed length was recorded in Ramanagar "Y" provenance (73%), for seed width and seed weight, it was Hosakote provenance (35.7 and 25.1% respectively).

  • Nagaveni, H.C, (1995). Phenology of neem (Azadirachta indica) on fruiting at Ramanagar,  Bangalore Dist.My Forest: 32(4): 305-408.

In neem flowering and fruiting commences in the month of February and March respectively.  Though flowering ceases by about July, fruiting extends up to November.  Sporadic flowering with high incidence of abortive seeds was observed during September to December in some cases. It is observed that considerable intra-population variability in these characters exists in the neem trees studied.

  • Sindhuveerendra, H.C., H.S. Ananthapadmanabha. (1996). The breeding system in sandal  (Santalum album L.) Silvae Genetica: 45:4 :188-190.

Studies on artificial selfing, natural out-crossing and obligatory selfing showed that sandal is a predominantly out breeding species though its flower structure was designed for self- pollination.  However sandal does produce seeds by selfing.  Self-incompatibility was observed to some extent.  Heterostyly was noticed in some genotypes.  The pollinating agents are bees, butterflies and beetles.  Apomixis and parthenocarpy were not noticed.

  • Sindhuveerendra, H.C., S.Ramalakshmi, B.B. Mallesha, H.S.Ananthapadmanabha and C.R. Rangaswamy. (1998). Variation in seed characteristics in provenances of sandal (Santalum album L.).  Sandal and its products. ACIAR proceedings. 84: 123-125.

Seeds of Santalum album (Sandal) from various seed sources show significant variation morphologically and physiologically.  Data on seed parameters showed significant variation between different seed sources.  Highest range of seed length is noted in seeds from Mulabala provenance (10.27-6.25 mm with a mean of 7.87 SE ± 0.1) whereas the lowest has been observed in Mysore provenance (8.92-7.45 mm with a mean of 8.0 SE± 0.08).  Similarly the highest seed width was observed in Shimoga provenance (9.29-6.19 mm with a men of 7.12 SE ±0.09) and the lowest has been observed in Mandagadde provenance (7.79-6.09 mm with a mean of 7.16 SE± 0.03) for seed weight, the highest was Hongal provenance (0.34-0.11 mm with a mean of 0.12 SE± 0.005) and the lowest was in Marayoor provenance (0.22-0.08 mm with a mean of 0.16 SE ± 0.005 and the lowest was in Marayoor provenance (0/22-0.08 mm with a mean 0.16 SE ± 0.003.  The coefficient of variation (CV), which helps in comparing variability among different provenance, has been calculated.  The highest CV for seed length was recorded in Mandagadde provenance (15.0%) followed by Mulbagal provenance (12.2%) CV for seed width is highest in Mysore provenance (14.0%) followed by Shimoga (11.9%).  The same has been observed for seed weight in Honagal provenance (29.3%), which is highest followed by Bangalore provenance (27.7%) The distribution patterns of CV among different provenances and in seed characteristics indicate the presence of natural variability int hose provenances.  Some outstanding trees may be selected from those provenances, which showed highest CV for different seed characteristics, and may be incorporated as base population while establishing second-generation seed orchards fo sandal at different places.  This is prerequisite for formulating a multiple population breeding strategy.

  • Annapurna, D., H.S. Ananthapadmanabha, H.C. Nagaveni and G.Vijayalakshmi. (1998).Effect of composition of media and seed density on germination of Sandal (Santalum album L.).Sandal and its products.ACIAR ProceedingsNo.84: 79-80.

Conventional sowing density is 500 g/m of seedbed containing a mixture of sand and red earth.  However, this prescription is arbitrary and needs substantiation.  Experiments conducted using a soil mixture of uniform grade and reduced seed density have shown a significant increase in both germination and the proportion of plantable seedlings.

  • H.C. Nagaveni, H.S. Ananthapadmanabha (1999). Sandal seeds; Retention of viability and  better Germination.  The Fafai journal : 2(1): 25-28.

Sandal tree flowers and beans twice a year and is capable of regenerating profusely. Natural regeneration of sandal is very god in protected area, however, success in raising Sandal seedlings is becoming difficult, because of improper collection and storing of seeds.  Reduction in viability of seed is due to the presence of unsaturated fatty oil as reserve food, which readily oxidizes, thereby reducing the fuel value, if appropriate measure is not taken while storing the seeds.  The successful germination and survival percentage and extension in durability can be obtained by following improved technique of collection and storage of seeds.  The role of viability of sandal seeds in getting better germination percentage and healthy seedlings for successful plantation and its significance in tree improvement programme is discussed in this paper.

  • Nagaveni, H.C. and H.S. Ananthapadmanabha. (2002). Nutrient mobility from seed to seedling during germination in sandalwood (Santalum album L.) seedlings. My Forest 38(1): 67-70.

Chemical analysis of different parts from seed to seedling stage has been done during germination process by using standard methods. During germination of sandal seeds, the nutrients from cotyledons are translocated to swollen hypocotyls region (Carrot region).  In sandal wood seedlings, some of food reserve persists in carrot region even at leaf stage. It may be due to partial parasitic nature of seedlings. The reserve food material held in the carrot region may be required for its sustenance till it is able to draw the required nutrients.

  • Kamala B.S., and V.G. Angadi(1992) Influence of  host plants on the cation exchange capacity of roots of sandal seedlings My Forest 28(4), 321-323

Study of CEC in the roots of sandal and its host plants has indicated that host plants have influenced the CEC of roots of sandal plants. Also degree of parasitisation  varies with different hosts. 

  • Angadi, V.G, B.S. Kamala, S.H. Jain andA.N. Rajeevalochan and C.R.Sarma(1995) Effect of application of single element (Micro  and macro)on the growth of sandal seedlings My Forest, 31(4), 5-7

The study points to the beneficial effect of application of individual nutrient elements to sandal seedlings.  This study can be made use in the nurseries to boost the growth of sandal seedlings in a short time with the idea of beneficial  effect of single nutrient element.

  • Khali, D.P. and K.S. Reddy (1998). A spread sheet approach to the evaluation of seed production areas of teakMy Forest 34 (2). 783-795.

In this paper a method for evaluation of seed production areas (SPAs) using spreadsheet approach is described.  The templates in terms of formulae and a representative set of values are given.  This method could be very useful for analyzing large amount of data and is user friendly.  Persons having no prior knowledge of programming and having basic knowledge of spreadsheet can also analyze data and conclude results easily using the method.

  • Annapurna., D, H.S. Ananthapadmanabha, H.C. Nagaveni, and G. Vijayalakshmi.(1998). Effect of composition of media and seed density on germination of sandal (Santalum album L.). ACIAR Proceedings No. 84, pp 81-82.

Conventional sowing density is 500/gm2 of seed in a seed bed containing a mixture of sand and red earth.  However, this prescription is arbitrary and needs substantiation.  Experiments conducted using a soil mixture of uniform grade and reduced seed density have shown a significant increase in both germination and the proportion of plantable seedlings.

  • Sindhuveerendra, H.C, S. Ramalakshmi, B.Mallesha,H.S.Ananthapadmanabha,C.R. Rangaswamy. (1998). Variation in seed characteristics in provenances of sandal (Santalum album L.) ACIAR Proceedings No. 84, pp 123-125. 

Seeds of Santalum album (sandal) from various seed sources show significant variation morphologically and physiologically.  Data on seed parameters showed significant variation between different seed sources.  Highest range of seed length is noted in seeds from Mulbagal provenance (10.27-6.25 mm with a mean of 7.87, SE ± 0.1), whereas the lowest has been observed in Mysore provenance (8.92-7.45 mm with a mean of 8.0 SE± 0.08).  Similarly, the highest seed width was observed in Mandagadde provenance (7.79-6.09 mm with a mean of 7.16 SE ± 0.03).  For seed weight, the highest was in Honagal provenance (0.34-0.11 mm with a mean of 0.12 SE ± 0.005.) and the lowest was in Marayoor provenance (0.022-0.08 mm with a mean of 0.16 SE ±  0.003).  The coefficient of variation (CV), which helps in comparing variability among different provenances, has been calculated.  The highest CV for seed length was recorded in Mandagadde provenance (15.0%) followed by Mulbagal provenance (12.2%) CV for seed width is highest  Mysore provenance (14.0%) followed by Shimoga (11.9%).  The same has been observed for seed weight in Honagal provenance (29.3%) which is highest, followed by Bangalore provenance 27.7%).   The distribution patterns of CV among different provenances and in seed characteristics indicate the presence of natural variability in those provenances.  Some outstanding trees may be selected from those provenances which showed highest CV for different seed characteristics, and may be incorporated as base population while establishing second generation seed orchards of sandal at different places.  This is prerequisite for formulating a multiple population breeding strategy.

  • Somashekar, P.V, H.C. Sindhuveerendra and T.S. Rathore.  (2000). The economy of rooting in Casuarina.My Forest. 36(4). 299-303.

A simple and economic method devised for vegetative propagation of Casuarina equisetifolia using cladode as a vegetative material and IBA as a growth hormones.  Cuttings were kept in folded blotting paper moisted with 1000 ppm and 2000 ppm IBA.  Rooting frequency varied from 37 - 96% depending on the clones treated with IBA.  Among the 10 clones tested, maximum rooting (96.15%) in clone 3 and minimum 37% in clone 8.  About 2500-3000 cuttings can be accommodated in 1.59 m area.  This method is simple and economic.

  • Srivastava, A. Rathore, T.S., Joshi, G., and Reddy K.S. (2002). Modern nursery practices in the production of quality seedlings of important forestry species using root trainer technology.My Forest 38(3): 257-263.

The present paper highlights the suitability of the root trainers for the production of quality seedlings of six important species of southern India namely; Acacia mangium, Acacia nilotica, Bambusa arundinacea, Ceiba pentandra, Dalbergia latifolia, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis, using compost as a major ingredient of potting mixture.  It has been found in this study that 150 cc root trainers with a potting mixture combination of compost: sand: soil (60.30.10) produces plantable and uniform seedlings within five months in all the species.  The average height attained by these species varied between 13.6 cm in case of Acacia mangium to parameters studied signified cohesive nature of the seedling population for all the species studied.  The culling percentage calculated on the basis of standard deviation for individual species, showed the variation between 8-20 percent, which indicated that uniform seedlings could be produced using root trainers in the species under study.

  • Viswanath, S., R.P. Singh and R.C. Thapliyal. (2002).Seed germination patterns in a Himalayan moist temperate forest.  Tropical Ecology 43(2): 265-273.

A study was conducted in a Himalayan moist temperate forest in Mandal to identify the patterns of seed germination and major germination syndromes operating in the forest and to understand the role of primary selective factors in controlling germination in the plant community and how groups of species respond to such factors.  The germination pattern was bimodal with the peak time of emergence in June followed by February-March. Along the altitudinal gradient (1650 to 2600 masl) the maximum number of seedlings emerging per transect higher elevations canopy tree species seemed to dominate in the regeneration transect.   The mean length of dormancy (MLD) of species recorded in field nursery trials in Mandal ranged from 10 days to 285 days.  Seasonal analysis of the germination pattern revealed that maximum number of species dispersed their seed during dry season (Oct-Jan) as compared to rainy or pre rainy season.  Three germination groups: delayed rainy (DR), intermediate-dry (ID) and rapid rainy (RR) were identified as the major germination syndromes in the study area.  Among the four ecological groupings of species, the season of seed dispersal and dispersal type explained most of the variance, in MLD among species.  The synchronization in the pattern of emergence within species and between species in Mandal forest was best illustrated by pattern of seedling emergence in the four oak species (Quercus semecarpifolia, Q floribunda, Q. leucotrichophora and Q. glauca) and four under storey species (Eouonymus tingens, Symplocos paniculata, Lindera pulcherrima and Sarcococca hookerana)

 

  • Sindhuveerendra, H.C, P.V. Somashekar, R.N. Lakshmi Kanth, and T.S.Rathore (2002) Variation and performance of Eucalyptus tereticornis clones in Bangalore. My Forest 38(1): 89-94.

Performance of 25 Eucalyptus tereticornis clones in Bangalore condition was analyzed.  Variation in the total height and collar diameter was higher.  It was found out that only 5 clones were performing well.  They were selected for further multiplication through shoot cuttings.  The selected clones have a good amount of positive general combing ability, specific combining ability and breeding values. In: Quality timber products of teak from sustainable forest.

  • T.S. Rathore and A. Srivastava 2002.  Standardization of root trainer based protocol for  quality seedling production in Dalbergia latifolia (Roxb.). Van Vigyan 40(1-4): 67-68.

In the present study an effort was made to standardize the potting medium, type and size of containers and the biofertiliser treatments for production of quality seedlings of Dalbergia latifolia various ingredients viz; compost, sand, soil, rice husk and charcoal were used in eight different combination and proportions replicated three times.  Whereas for the container experiment, six different size and type of containers were used which included three root trainer type and three polybag types.  In the Biofertiliser experiment eight different combinations of VAM and N2 fixing bacteria were used to study its effect on seedling growth. The results indicate that Dalbergia latifolia seedlings can be successfully grown in 150 cc root trainers with a potting mixture of 60:30:10 (Compost Sand and Soil) in a period of 5 months with height of 27.6 cm, collar diameter of 3.06 mm and SQ (Sturdiness Quotient) value of 8.18.   Whereas, traditional potting mixture Sand, Soil and FYM in ratio 2:1:1 showed poor growth in terms of height (15.10 cm). collar diameter (1.99mm) and SQ value of 7.58.  Among containers root trainers proved better than polybags in overall seedling growth.  Increased volume of containers favoured better growth.  Biofertilisers (VAM and N2 fixing bacteria) did not have any significant effect on the growth, which may be due to high nutrient status of the base mixture.  It is anticipated that the biofertilisers would help in the field conditions when the conditions are harsh.

  • Nataraja, K.N., A.N. Arun Kumar and Ashutosh Srivastava. (2003). A non-destructive rapid  method for estimation of leaf area in nursery grown teak (Tectona grandis Linn.) seedlings.  Annals of forestry.  11(1): 94-97.

Estimation of Leaf Area (LA), while evaluating a large number of genotypes/clones in a forest nursery, is always considered as a difficult task.  In the present study, the authors have developed a regression equation (RE) and a fixed coefficient (FC) to calculate the LA of teak seedlings growing in forest nurseries.  The regression equation, Leaf Area = (L*W)* 0.543 +2.967, was derived by taking actual leaf area as dependent variable and product of L and W as independent variable (r= 0.988).  The FC calculated by taking the ratio of actual to product of L and W was found to be 0.579.  The equation and coefficient was validated and was found significant.   The study indicated that either FC or RE can be used with precision to determine LA of teak seedlings grown in forest nurseries, non -destructively.  This type of short cut, rapid method is highly useful when a large number of provenance/clones are to be tested or in places where instrumentation facility is not available.

  • Annapurna, D, T.S. Rathore, and Geeta Joshi.  (2004).  Effect of container type and size on  the growth and quality of seedlings of Indian sandalwood (Santalum album L.).  Australian Forestry. 67:2 82-87.

Studies were carried out to determine the effects of container type and size on the growth and quality of seedlings of Indian sandal wood (Santalum album L), an over exploited hemi-root parasite.  Three types of container, viz., root trainers (150,270,300, 450 and 600 ml), polythene bags (polybags) 600,1000 and 1500 Ml) and plastic containers (1000ml) were used with a potting medium that consisted sand, soil compost, burnt rice husk and charcoal in the ratio of 5:3:10:1:1 Cajanus cajan was used as a primary host in all treatments. Survival and overall growth of sandalwood seedlings 6 m old, in terms of height, collar diameter, seedling biomass and root shoot ratio, were best in root trainers, and next best in plastic containers.  Among the root trainers the 600 ml size was optimum for most of the parameters of seedling quality, including height 20.4 cm) total dry weight (3.06g) shoot dry weight (1.66g) root dry weight (1.41g) and quality index (0.37).  This size was followed by the 270 and 300 ml root trainers.  Despite the large size of the polybags (600-1500 ml) seedling growth in these was poor: root coiling and poor root development affected root dry weight (0.13-0.39g) and the quality index (0.03-0.05). Good quality seedlings > 30 cm high >3.0 mm in collar diameter and with an 0.3 quality index can be produced in 6 mo in 600 ml root trainers.  Most of the parameters of seedling quality s(seedling height, collar diameter, seedling biomass and quality index) of seedlings grown in 270 ml block-type root trainers were comparable with those of seedlings in 1000 ml plastic containers.  This result encourages further reduction in container size from 600 ml to 270 ml by better managing nutrition and screening for better primary hosts.

 

  • Rathore, T.S. D. Annapurna, G. Joshi, and A. Srivastava. (2004). Studies on potting mixture and size of containers on the quality of seedling production in Casuarina equisetifolia Forst.  Indian Forester,130 (3) 323-330. 

The studies  were aimed to optimize the potting mixture ingredients, their proportion and size of the container (root trainers) for the production of quality planting stock of Casuarina equisetifolia  Forst.  Seven combinations of potting mixture ingredient (sand, soil, compost, burnt, rice husk and charcoal) were tested in various ratios for the optimization of potting mixture in 150 cc block type root trainers.  Simultaneously, four different volumes  (90cc, 150cc, 270  and 300 cc) of root trainers were tested for suitability of container size.  Chemical and physical analysis of potting mixture ingredients were carried out for better understanding of nutrient status, porosity, water holding capacity, bulk density, pH and conductivity.  The best seedling growth at five months age in terms of height (47.30 cm) collar diameter (3.08 mm), total dry weight (4.5 g), shoot dry weight (3.04 g), root dry weight (1.47g) and quality index (0.26) was observed in potting mixture consisting of sand, soil compost burnt rice husk and charcoal in the 30:10:50:5:5 ratio, which has at par with potting mixture consisting stand, soil, compost in the ratio of 20:20:60.  Larger size of containers (300cc) at three months age produced seedlings with maximum height (27.61cm), collar diameter (2.08 mm) and dry biomass (4.75 g) but had other disadvantages like more sturdiness quotient  (13.67), less root shoot ratio (0.43) and no proper plug formation after 3 months.  On the other had seedlings raised in 150 cc root trainer resulted into low sturdiness quotient (11.18), more root shoot ratio (0.62) and good plug formation and considered for planting.

  • Annapoorna, D, T.S. Rathore,  and Geeta Joshi. (2004). Effect of container type and size on the growth and quality of seedlings of Indian sandalwood (Santalum album L.)  Australian  Forestry 67:2:82-87.

Studies were carried out to determine the effects of container type and size on the growth and quality of seedlings of Indian sandalwood (Santalum album L. ) an over exploited hemi-root parasite.  Three types of container, viz., root trainers (150,270,300,450 and 600 mL.) polythene bags (polybags) 600,1000 and 1500 mL) and plastic containers (1000 mL) were used with a potting medium that consisted of sand, soil, compost, burnt rice husk and charcoal in the ratio of 5:3;10:1:1, Cajanus cajan was used as a primary host in all treatments.   Survival and overall growth of sandalwood seedlings 6 mo old, in terms of height, collar diameter, seedling biomass and root shoot ratio, were best in root trainers, and next best in plastic   containers.  Among the root trainers, the 600 mL size was optimum for most of  the parameters of seedlings quality, including height 920.4 cm), total dry weight (3.06 g) shoot dry weight 91.66 g), root dry weight (1.41 g) and quality  index (0.37).  This size was followed by the 270 and 300 mL root trainers.  Despite the large size of the  polybags (600-1500 mL), seedling growth in these was poor.  Root coiling and poor root development affected root dry weight (0.13-0.39 g) and the quality index (0.03-0.05).  Good quality seedlings >20cm high >30 mm in collar diameter and with an 0.3 quality index  can be produced in 6 mo in 600 mL root trainers.  Most of the parameters of seedling quality (seedling height, collar diameter, seedling biomass and quality index) of seedlings grown in 270 mL block-type root trainers were comparable with those of seedlings in 1000 mL plastic  containers.  This result encourages  further reduction in container size from 600 mL to 270 mL by better managing nutrition and screening for better primary hosts.   

 

  • Annapurna, D., T.S. Rathore,  Geeta Joshi. (2005).  Refinement of potting medium ingredients for production of high quality seedlings of sandalwood (Santalum album L.) Australian Forestry 68:1: 43-48

This  study was undertaken in order to refine the potting medium and improve  seedling growth of Santalum album L. in root trainers.  The potting medium ingredients, including sand, soil, compost, cocopeat, burnt rice husk  and  charcoal, were tested in fourteen combinations in 270 mL block-type root trainers using Cajanus cajan as a pot host. A medium consisting of sand, soil, compost, burnt rice husk (BRH) and charcoal in the ratio of 25:15:50:5:5: favored overall seedling growth in terms of height, collar diameter, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, total dry weight, root fibrosity and quality index at age  6 mo.  The next best medium was a mixture of sand, soil and compost in the ratio 35:15:50.  where rice husk and charcoal are not available, this second medium may be used to produce good quality seedlings. The best potting medium for sandalwood had up to 60% organic matter mixed with sand and soil.  This medium had low bulk density, good aeration and water holding capacity, encouraged lateral root formation, and ensured good plug formation and easy plug removal.  A high proportion of sand, soil or organic matter caused poor  seedling growth.

  • Rathore, T.S., and A. Srivastava. (2002). Standardization of root trainer based protocol for quality seedling production in Dalbergia latifolia (Roxb.)  Van Vigyan Society of Indian foresters 40 (1-4): 67-78.

In the present study an effort was made to standardize the potting medium, type and size of containers and the biofertilizer treatments for production of quality seedlings of Dalbergia latifolia in most economical cost and time.  In order to optimize potting medium, various ingredients viz; compost, sand, soil, rice husk and charcoal were used in eight different combination  and proportions replicated three times.  Whereas for the container experiment six different size and type of containers were used which included three root trainer type and three polybag types.  In the biofertiliser experiment eight different combinations of VAM and N2 fixing bacteria were used to study its effect on seedling growth.   The results indicate that Dalbergia latifolia seedlings can be successfully grown in 150 cc root trainers with a potting mixture of 60:30:10 (compost sand and soil) in a period of 5 months with height of 27.6 cm, collar diameter of 3.06 mm and SQ (Sturdiness quotient) value of 8.18 whereas, traditional potting mixture sand, soil and FYM  in ratio 2:1:1 showed poor growth in term of height (15.10 cm) collar diameter (1.99 mm) and SQ value of 7.58.  Among containers, root trainers proved better than polybags in overall seedling growth.  Increased volume  of containers favored better growth.  Biofertilisers (VAM and N2 fixing bacteria) did not have any significant effect on the growth, which may be due to high nutrient status of the base mixture.  It is anticipated that the biofertilisers  would help in the field conditions when the conditions when the conditions are harsh.

  • Annapurna, D., T.S. Rathore, and P.V.Somashekar. (2004). Impact of clones in a clonal seed orchard on the variation of seed traits, germination and seedling growth in Santalum album L.  Silvae Genetica 54:4-5  

Clonal seed orchard (CSO)  of Santalum album L. at Nallal, India consisting of 25 clones originated from different agro-climatic conditions of four southern states (Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh)was source of seeds for variability studies.  There was  vast variation in seed size, weight, germination, vigour and seedling growth of different clones over the years.  Seed length width and weight were positively correlation, Germination Value (GV), days  taken for germination  and early seedling growth. Effects of clones were dominant and accounted for variation in germination rather than see size.  There was no consistency in the parameters studied in the two years.  The impact of these genetic differences in handling of see lots during bulking, grading and storage for mass propagation of nursery planting stock of S. album is also discussed.

 
  • Srivastava, A and T.S. Rathore. (2005). Standardization of container size and type for quality seedling production in Dalbergia Latifolia, Wrightia tinctoria  and Bambusa bambos - A comprehensive cost analysis.  My Forest 41(4), 479-490.

Production of quality seedlings at economic costs is major objective of a nursery manager.  The type  and size of container to be used is of prime importance when we have to achieve the above objective.  Ever since containerized seedling production was  adopted during early 70 s, various kinds of containers were used to grow seedlings.  The present research work was carried out to analyze the economics of seedling production in polybags as well as root trainers to assess their growth and economics.  The present studies reveal that the container size and type (root trainers; 90cc 150cc and  270 cc block type) and polybags (4 x6" and 5 X6") have a significant effect on the species under study. Results indicate that 150cc root trainer result in seedlings that are suitable for planting within 5 months.  Although the seedlings in 270cc root trainers and 5 x6" polybag  produce seedlings with better overall growth, but cost index for both are higher than 150cc root trainers.  The cost of production for 1,00,000 seedlings in 150cc root trainers was Rs. 42, 996.57 whereas incase of 270cc root trainers, 4x6" polybag, 5 x6" polybag and 4x6" polybag with traditional potting mixture it was found to be 68,191.53; 82,284.70; 1,06,771.80 and 78,125.50 respectively.  Therefore, it would be advisable to take up large-scale production of seedlings in 150cc root trainers.  However,  if  the seedlings are to be retained for a period more than 5 months 270cc root trainers are recommended.

 
  • Remadevi, O.K., and Raja Muthrukrishnan. (2005).  Introspection into the phytosanitary procedures for storage of forestry seeds in Karnataka. My Forest 41(2A): 311-314.

Studies were conducted to document the major pests and fungi on seeds of 10 important tree species (Acacia, Diospyros, Pongam, Bamboo, Albizia, Subabul Tamarind, Neem etc.) in seed storages.  Survey of forest seed storages of government and private seed suppliers were undertaken.  No standard procedure was observed in seed storage.  It varied from one to another.  As soon as they receive the seeds, the seeds  are stored  in gunny bags, the bags are placed on wooden donage or polythene sheet over the floor and stacked to a height of 6 ft-12 ft.  The symptoms of attack  like, holes, presence of powder, colour change  and surface damage were taken  into account for assessing the insect infestation.  The seed germination tests were conducted as per the standard procedure.  Evaluation of the currently followed phytosanitary measures was done. Formulated a package of practice  for seed storage for better viability and germination.  

 
  • Geeta Joshi, A.N. Arun Kumar, Balakrishna Gowda, and Y.B. Srinivasa. (2006).Production of  supernumerary  plants from seed fragments in Garcinia gummi-gutta: evolutionary implications of mammalian frugivory.  Current Science 91(3): 372-376.

Seed of Garcinia gummi-gutta follow Garcinia type of germination in which the primary root and shoot emerge from the opposite ends of the seed.  The embryo, which fills up the seed, is an  elongated by hypocotyl with vasculature connecting the two poles. In a series of experiments we observed that removal of primary root at different stages of development does not affect germination or seedling growth; any seed fragment that contains vasculature produces a root and shoot irrespective of its size and position with precise polarity; and , a seed from which a seedling has germinated is capable of producing another seedling.  We propose that the regenerative capacity of seed fragments could be a unique strategy for exploiting mammalian frugivory for seed dispersal. 

 

BIOTECHNOLOGY 

  • Subba Rao,  D.Yadav, H.S. Ananthapadmanabha,  H.C. Nagaveni, C.S.Singh and S.K. Kavimandan. (1990). Nodule haustoria and microbial features of Cajanus and Pongamia parasitized by sandal (Sandal wood).  Plant and Soil 128: 249-256.

A field observation showed that roots of sandalwood tree (Santalum album (L)) formed direct haustorial connection with root nodules of nodulating legumes was confirmed by pot culture studies on interaction between sandal wood plants and pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) and Pongamia glabra plants. The number of nodules and nitrogen content of plants decreased in parasitized nodulating species with corresponding increase in the nitrogen content of sandal plants. The root region of sandal plants had more of nitrogen fixing bacteria and VAM fungi than those of pigeon pea.  

 
  • Vijayalakshmi, G., H.C. Nagaveni, P.V. Somashekar and H.S. Ananthapadmanabha.(1999).  New method of vegetative propagation of Casuarina equisetifolia.My Forest 35(2); 149-152.

Simple technique of vegetative propagation of Casuarina equisetifolia has been successfully tried. 1 to 2 mm dia and 100 to 120 mm length with a number of branched cladode segments were chosen for rooting. The cut ends were given a dip treatment of 1000ppm IBA and placed on a slopy stone slab with blotting paper and kept in mist chamber. Significant variation in the rooting behaviour of clones has been noticed. Cladodes showed fibrous root growth at different segmental levels. When inter segments with root primordial are separated from main cladode and planted, they develop into separate plantlets. The technique adopted is very simple and efficient with decided advantage.  

 
  • Remadevi, O.K, L.N. Santhakumaran and Raja muthukrishnan (1997). Bio- ecology of Pteroma plagiophleps on Rhizophora mucronata My Forest 33(1), 375-379.

The polyphagous pest of forest trees, Pteroma Plagiophleps was found to cause severe defoliation leading to around 30% mortality of saplings of a mangrove tree, Rhizphora mucronata, along the Goa coast.  The life cycle, with a larval period of 45 to 60 days and a pupal period of 19 to 21 days, is completed within 3 months.   In the field, the parasitism by an inchneumonid, Sinophorus sp. was 4 %.  In the laboratory, the insect could  complete the life cycle successfully on the exotic tree, Acacia mangium.  

 
  • Sanjaya, H.S. Ananthapadmanabha, and V. Ravishankar Rai. (1998). In-vitro shoot multiplication from the mature tree of Santalum album L ACIAR Proceedings No.84, pp 45-49.

The main incentive to clone mature trees is to capture specific, mostly non-additive gene combinations that import superior characteristics.  A protocol for direct organogenesis for shoot-tip or nodal segments of mature sandal trees has been studied.  Adventitious buds were initiated on " Murashige and Skoog" medium containing various combinations and concentrations of cytokinins.  Repeated cycles of culture and regeneration produced more adventitious buds.  Histological studies revealed that proliferation of buds originated directly from the superficial layers of the explants without an intermediate callus phase.  

 
  • Sanjaya, H.S. Ananthapadmanabha and Ravishankar Rai. (1998). In-vitro and in-vivo micrografting of Santalum album L. shoot-tips.  ACIAR Proceedings No.84,pp 60-65.

In-vitro and in-vivo micrografting of Santalum album was achieved by placing 1-2 cm scion explants derived from in-vitro and field grown shoot apices on the hypocotyls of decapitated 40-45 day old seedlings.  Under favourable conditions, the scion and hypocotyls united to form a complete plant, which produced 2-4 leaves after 6-8 weeks. These plants were transplanted to the greenhouse having been conditioned to ambient humidity for two weeks.  

 
  • Sindhu Veerendra, H.C., T.S. Rathore, and K.S. Reddy (2000). Further tree improvement strategy in casuarinas. My Forest, 36(4). 239-246.

Casuarina equisetifolia tree improvement programme at IWST, Bangalore was initiated during 1998.  Seed production area of about 10 ha was established at Gudur based on sample plot survey in potential plantation near Kakinada and Nellore, Andhra Pradesh.  Clonal seed orchards of 25 clones originated from Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh was established at Nellore.  For CSO, 20 female and 5 male clones were used at 4 m x 4 m spacing.  Seedling seed orchard of 225 families was established as a source of quality seed as well as future base for selection of plus trees. 

 
  • Rathore, T.S., Sanjaya and N.S. Shekhawat (2000). In vitro cloning of selected forest tree species In: Abstract of National symposium on prospects and potentials of plant biotechnology in India in the 21st century & 23rd annual meeting of PTCA held at J.N. Vyas University, Jodhpur during October 18-21st, 2000, 52-53.

Genetic diversity within species has vast potential to achieve immediate genetic gain through cloning and exploiting worth of superior genotypes/clones for improved productivity and quality of end products.  Tissue culture based biotechnology has potential to overcome the limitations of macropropgation of plus trees/ clones of forest tree species, for mass propagation of clonal plating material for clonal trials and operational planting.  Success of in vitro cloning of tree species depends on species age, management, season, nutrient media, growth hormones, incubation conditions, multiplication rate, ex vitro rooting and hardening.  Rejuvenation and revigouration helps in high multiplication rate and ex vitro rooting.  

 
  • Sanjaya, Poornima, and T.S. Rathore. (2000). Studies on somatic  embryogenesis in forestry species -Santalum album, Tectona grandis and Pseudoxytenanthera stocksii In: Abstract of National symposium on prospects and potentials of plant biotechnology in India in the 21st Century and 23rd annual meeting of PTCA held at J.N. Vyas University, Jodhpur during October 18-21st, 2000,  54-55.

Santalum album L. (Indian sandal) is a hemi-root parasite, which is in high demand in international market for its fragrant wood and oil.  Root and stem (heartwood) bears oil content, which varies from 2-6% between genotypes.  Sandal is considered threatened in its habitat.  Tectona grandis L.f (teak), a high value timber species, possess vast genetic variability.  Lack of sufficient quality seeds and low success rate of macropropgation are limiting factors for mass production of quality planting stock.  Pseudoxytenanthera stocksii is a solid bamboo, endemic to Western Ghat.  Fertile seed setting is rare in this species and considered threatened in its habit.

Direct somatic embryogenesis was obtained in S. album from zygotic embryo and cotyledon on Murashige and Skoog medium with NAA + BAP + Coconut milk.  In T. grandis globular embryoids developed from the leaf explant on MS medium with NAA + BAP.  Somatic embryogenesis in P. stocksii induced from the embryogenic callus developed on MS medium with 2, 4-D + Kn. 

 
  • Sanjaya, T.S., Rathore and V.Ravishankar Rai. (2001). In vitro cloning of  Indian sandal  (Santalum album L.)- a Highly prized over exploited tree  species.In: Abstract of Biotechnological innovations in conservation and analysis of plant diversity organized by the Delhi University in Feb. 7 - 9th, 2001, p. 15.

Indian sandal (Santalum album L.), a hemi-root parasite tree, belonging to the family Santalaceae, distributed mainly in the southern states of India.  Karnataka and Tamil Nadu together, accounts 90% of total sandal area in the country.  S. album is a highly prized tree species for its fragrant  oil used in world class perfumeries.  Current demand of sandalwood and oil has been projected to be 10,000 MT and 200 MT, respectively in the international markets.  Over exploitation and illicit felling has narrowed the gene pool and the species considered is threatened in its habitats. In vitro cloning through axillary shoot proliferation is highly desirable to exploit potential of high oil yielding clones for industrial plantation, conservation and sustainable utilization.  Multiple shoots (4-6 shoots/explant) were induced from nodal segments of high oil yielding and mature trees on MS medium with NAA (0.1 mg/1) and BAP (2.5 mg/1) within 4-5 weeks at 28 ± 10C temperature.   Repeated sub-culturing of original explants on fresh medium developed new crop of shoots up to third passage. Low success rate was obtained in in vitro and ex vitro root induction from the in vitro differentiated shoots. Hardening was found essential for a minimum of 8-10 weeks under semi-controlled conditions of temperature and humidity in mist chamber/greenhouse.  Methods described could be useful for the propagation and conservation of novel clones of S. album.  Further studies are required for high frequency shoot multiplication and ex vitro root induction for mass scale production of clonal planting material of sandal. 

 
  • Rathore, T.S., Sanjaya. (2001). High frequency in vitro shoot multiplication and ex vitro rooting in teak (Tectona grandis L.f). In: Abstract of Golden jubilee symposium on Biotechnological innovations in conservation and analysis of plant diversity.  Organized by the Delhi University, Delhi in Feb. 7 - 9th, 2001, p. 54.

Integration of tree breeding and biotechnology in forest tree improvement has potential for immediate genetic gain through selection and cloning of superior genotypes for improved productivity, quality of end products and conservation of novel genotypes.  Tectona grandis is a highly prized timber species, which has world wide demand for its unmatchable wood qualities.  Traditional method of cloning has limitation in large-scale multiplication and existing in vitro method of cloning is cumbersome.  The development of simple cost effective and viable protocol for the rejuvenation and cloning of superior genotypes of T. grandis is highly desirable to exploit the worth of superior clones/plus trees through clonal trials, operational planting and afforestation for improved productivity through clonal forestry.  In addition, in vitro cloning has importance in ex situ conservation of elite clones for further genetic improvement and sustainable utilization.   Aseptic cultures of T. grandis were established from nodal shoot segments derived from selected clones (from vegetative multiplication garden cum germplasm bank of T. grandis) on MS medium containing BAP 2.0 mg/1.  High frequency shoot multiplication was achieved from in vitro shoots (6-8 shoot/segments) by sub culturing on modified MS medium with IAA 0.1 mg/1 + BAP 1.0 mg/1 + additives at elevated temperature (28 ±10C). 

 
  • Arun Kumar, S. Rama Rao and T.S. Rathore.  (2002). Cytological investigations in some important tree species of Rajasthan IV. Male Meiosis studies in the Genus Salvadora L. Cytologia 67: 105-115. 

Male meiosis in 12 accessions belonging to 2 species of the genus Salvadora viz., S. persica and S. oleoides, an important medicinal and oil yielding tree has been studied in detail.  The somatic chromosome number in both the species is confirmed as 2n =24.  Two basic numbers n=12 and 13 are contemplated of the genus.  Analysis of chromosome associations revealed regular occurrence of univalents and bivalents.  Among bivalents ring type were more in number as compared to rod bivalents, which normally had terminalized chiasma.  A single nucleolus, which always showed affinity towards 1 to 3 bivalents, was the common observation in PMCs.  Structural rather than numerical changes (Polyploidy) seems to have played a significant role in speciation and evolution of the genus Salvadora.  

 
  • Somashekar, P.V., R.N. Lakshmikanth, T.S. Rathore and K.S. Reddy. (2004).Macro-propagation of Guadua angustifolia kunth. an exotic and fast growing bamboo species.  Indian Forester  130: 655 - 661.

This  paper deals with macro-propagation of Guadua angustifolia Kunth., an exotic and fast growing multipurpose bamboo species.  Studies were conducted on effect of types of cuttings, concentrations and mode of auxin, (IBA) treatments.  Leafy culm branch cuttings with shoot apex of 10-15 cm in length with 2/3rd trimmed leaves, treated with IBA 2500 ppm (talcum based IBA powder) induced maximum (85%) rooting within 30 days in sand bed medium under intermittent misting at 30 ± 5o C temperature and 70 ± 5% relative humidity in mist chamber.  Whereas, nodal (culm) cuttings of 5-6 cm in length and 3-4 mm in diameter exhibited maximum (80%) rooting by pulse treatment with 2500 ppm IBA solution within 45 days period.  Rooted cuttings grew vigorously in 600 cc single cell root trainers containing compost, and soil (10:7:3) with neem cake (10 kg/m3) and SSP (4.5 kg/m3).  Plantable clonal plants with large number of roots and rhizome formation was observed within 4 months period.  Further multiplication (3-4 fold) can be achieved by separating tillers (1-2) with roots and rhizome from the four months old rooted cuttings in root trainers.  About five hundred plants were produced by these methods.  Method described could be used for large scale macro propagation of G.angustifolia. 

 
  • Sanjaya, T.S. Rathore, V.Ravishankar Rai. (2005). Micropropgation of Pseudoxytenanthera stocksii munro.  In vitro Cellular Developmental Biology.  11:333-337.

An efficient and reproducible procedure for the large scale propagation of Pseudoxytenanthera stocksii is described.  High frequency multiple shoot induction was achieved from nodal shoot segments collected from superior / elite genotypes on Murashige and Skoog(MS) liquid medium supplemented with 1- naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA: 2.68 μM) and 6-benzylaminopurine ( BA; 4.40 μM) at 28 ± 1°C  and 60μmol m-2 s-1 light intensity under 12 h photoperiod.  In vitro differentiated shoots were multiplied on MS liquid medium fortified with NAA (2.68 μ M), and BA (2.21 μM) and additives: ascorbic acid  (283.93 μM), citric acid (118.10 μM), cysteine (104.04 μM), and glutamine (342.24 μM).  Subculturing was carried out every 2 wk on fresh shoot multiplication medium.  About 125-150 shoots per culture flask were harvested  within 45-50 d.  In vitro- differentiated shoot clumps (three or four shoots) were successfully rooted on half strength MS basal liquid medium with indole-3-butyric acid (4.90 μM), BA (0.44  μM), and additives.  This is the first report where in vitro and in vivo- (through tillers) raised clonal plants were acclimatized and established in the field where they exhibited normal growth.

 

FORESTRY       

  • Ananthapadmanabha, H.S., H.C.Nagaveni, S.N. Rai. (1991). Endogenous gibberelin in relation to flower induction in sandal.My Forest: 27(1): 32-34.

Sandal wood trees are having two distinct periods of flowering pattern in general. But, some trees flower once in a year, majority of trees flower twice a year and some trees do not flower at all. Plants were selected from all three groups and investigation was undertaken to find out the levels of endogenous gibberelin like substances and their relationship to flowering. Terminal buds, lateral buds, and leaves were extracted with methanol and separated active ingredients using TLC method and tested the presence of gibberelin like substance using half seed bioassay. Sandal plants showed higher level of endogenous gibberelin like substances associating with flower initiation and production. The flowering pattern of particular plant can be decided based on the production of gibberelin like substances. 

 
  • Nagaveni, H.C., H.S. Anantha padmanabha (1997). Performance of teak in different agro forestry models. My Forest 33(3). 565-570.

Agroforestry has become the most potential forestry programme to meet the growing demands of fuel, fodder and small timber.  This also helps in conservation of soil and water, increase of soil fertility and maintenance of ecological balance. Depending on the size of land holding and interest of farmers, different agro forestry models like 1.block planting 2.  Inter cropping of trees/crops 3. Planting on the bunds 4. Planting as avenue trees separating agricultural crop and 5. Planting trees at regular intervals along with agricultural crop have been adopted by the farmers.  Teak plants showed varied growth pattern in different models depending on the availability of soil moisture, light, space, and other factors.  

 
  • Jain S.H, V.G. Angadi, A.N. Rajeevalochan, K.H. Shankaranarayana, K.S. Theagarajan, and C.R. Rangaswamy (1998), Identification of provenance of sandal in India for genetic conservation, ACIAR   proceedings, No. 84,  117-120

Important sandal-bearing areas in the states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh were covered by reconnaissance survey.  Eight potential provenances in different ecoclimatic zones have been identified.  A comparison of the data from the present survey with that of 1970 indicates that the sandal population has declined substantially due to biotic and abioitc factors.  This situation demands fresh initiatives for protection and propagation of this valuable tree species.

 
  • Remadevi, O.K., R. Sundarraj, and K. Satyanarayana Rao (2004). Scope of neem products  and pheromones for the management of forest insect pests. Journal of Non-Timber Forest Products 11(2): 125-130.

Application of biopesticides and pheromones are emerging as effective methods of controlling insect pests without causing any adverse effect on the environment.  Among the plants, Neem (Aadirachta indica) is the single most important source of pesticides and its potential against several agricultural and horticultural crop pests have been well documented.  Only few reports on the potential of Neem for the management of tree pests are available.  In this paper, an attempt is made to review the effects of neem products on the insect pests of forestry importance.  Techniques based on pheromones are viable alternatives for pest management in agriculture and forestry.   A review on these lines indicates that many countries have history of success in using pheromones in the management of forest insect pests. 

 
  • Sundarraj, R., O.K. Remadevi, and Rajamuthukrishnan (2000). Intensity of whitelfly Aleurodicus disperses Russell (Aleyrodidae: homoptera) on forest and avenue trees in and around Bangalore. Indian Journal of Forestry. 23(3):319-321.

Eggs, nymphs and adults of the spiraling whitefly, Aleurodicus disperses Russell were observed infesting the leaves of variety of important avenue and forest tree species.  Maximum infestation was noticed on Tectona grandis (484.5 nymphs/leaf) followed by Michelia champaca (379.8 nymphs/leaf), Psidium guajava (365.8 nymphs/leaf) Euphorbia pulcherimma (337.5 nymphs/leaf) and Eucalyptus camaldulensis (154.8 nymphs/leaf).  The  infestation on other tree species like Eugenia jambolona, Artocarpus heterophyllus,. Bauhinia vaiegata, Thespesia populnea, Pongamia glabra, and polyalthia longifolia.  was low.  

 
  • Remadevi, O.K., Raja muthukrishnan. (1998).Inglisia bivalvata greens (Hemiptera:cpccoidae), casual agent for the dieback and death of sandal (santalum album) Journal of tropical forest science 10(3):388-397.

Inglisisa bivavlvata grees (Hemiptera:coccidae) causes dieback of branches and, in severe cases, death of saplings and young trees  of sandal, Santalum album.  Scales are attached to twigs.  Female scales look like bivalved shells.  While adult males are winged, females are wingless and sedentary.  Nymphs move out from underneath the scales of females and settle on tender branches to suck the sap. Insects occur through out the year.  Parasites and predators help in the biological control of this pest.  Five hymenopteran parasites are reported for the first time from this coccid.  Quinalphos and chlorphyriphos  were found to be effective controlling the pest attack.  In this study, Polyalthia longifolia, P.pendula, Acacia mangium and Dalbergia sissoo are reported as  new plant hosts. 

 
  • O.K. Remadevi, Raja Muthukrishanan (1998). Farmer trials on the control of the defoliators, Eutectona machaeralis walker and Hyblaca puera Cramer on teak saplings. Proceedings on national symposium of pest management.

Teak, Tectona grandis Linn. Is the most preferred tree grown along with agricultural and horticultural crops.  In the initial years of establishment, the attack of two defoliators, Hapaha machaeralis and Hyblaea puera cause serious impairment of growth leading to dieback or even mortality of the plants.  Studies revealed that 0.1% of monocrotophos (36% SL) was best for immediate control followed by chlorphyriphos and quinalphos.  The effect of phorate was seen after about a month of treatment.  

 
  • Remadevi, O.K., V.R. Sivaramakrishnan,  Biomass utilization by Diacrisia obliqua Walker Feeding on Tectona grandis Linn. F. and parthenium hysterophorus L (1996) . Proc. IUFRO symp. On Impact of Diseases and Insect pests in tropical forests. .441-447.

The polyphagous pest, Diacrisia obliqua Walker (Lepiodptera: Arctidae) feeds on the leaves of both the economically important teak tree and the notorious weed, Parthenium.  The nutritional indices on both the plants were studied simultaneously and compared.  IT is shown that parthenium is nutritionally more suitable for the growth and survival of D.oblizua, although leaf consumption was higher for teak. 

 
  • Remadevi, O.K. Report on  Menochilus sexmaculatus (Fabr) (coleoptera:Coccinellidae), Predator of leucaena psyllid, heteropsylla cubana Crawford .(1996 ). My Forest 32 (4), 313-316.

Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Is an exotic tree, widely grown in India for multiple purposes.  Since 1988, cultivation of this tree is severely hampered by attack of sap sucker psylid, Heteropsylla cubana Crawford.  Among natural enemies, coccinellid predtor,  Menochilus sexmaculatus Fabr. is found in large numbers, checking incidence of this pest in nature.  Biological notes on the predator are given in this paper. 

 
  • Remadevi, O.K., V.R. Sivaramakrishnan, Future of Tasar Silk Industry in Relation to Forestry in India. (1995).Indian silk 33(11):35-38

Tasar culture is an ideal forest based industry attuned to the nature and the needs of our socio-economic milieu.  For centuries, tasar culture remained obscure as an exclusive craft and tradition of the hillfolks and aboriginals, inhabiting the forest tracts of Central and North-eastern India.  In recent years, this tribal tradition has assumed importance and attention at the national level.  The primary food plants of tropical tasar are Terminalia tomentosa, T. arjuna, Shorea robusta.  Thirty eight food plants of secondary importance have also been recorded for the tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta D.  The production potentialities and steady demand for tasar products abroad has prompted the commercial exploitation of this tribal craft which is now transformed into an industry of immense economic importance.  The industry has two components - the rich natural forest resources and the manpower; the challenge is to bring about a balanced development. 

 
  • Shashidhar, K.S.  and Arun Kumar A.N. Trade in sandal (Santalum album L.)(1999). The Fafai journal. 1(4): 51-56.

Among the non timber forest species, Santalum album is economically important because of its high value added products.  Commercial plantations on large scale including sandal will go a long way in meeting the demand for its produce and at the same time reduces the pressure on natural forests. Karnataka and Tamil Nadu have not only major sandal bearing areas but also produce 90 percent of countries production.  Sandal is valued for its heartwood and oil, which starts when the tree is around 15 years old. Both in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, the state has monopoly over its production, protection and disposal both in Government and private plantations.  Production and extraction of sandal has been showing a decreasing trend over the years due to depletion in growing stock, overall yield and also policy of the Government.  The production and price depends on the demand in the international market, which is on the increase due to multipurpose usage of sandal and its products.  The domestic consumption is minimal and the international demand is for a specific class of wood and oil.  Oil is used  for perfumes and cosmetics and in pharmaceutical preparations.  Majority of the export is to the European, Middle East countries and USA.  The demand in the international market for sandal products because of its high value, has encouraged illegal trade by way of illicit and indiscriminate felling which resulted in depleted growing stock with high percent of lower girth classes.  Consequently economically harvestable girth class being low. 

 
  • Shashidhar, K.S.  and  Arun Kumar, A.N. Bamboo in ornamental gardening and landscaping. (1999). Indian Forester 125 (12): 1185-89

Use of bamboo for various purposes such as construction material, household implements, pulp and fibre in manufacture of paper products and as vegetative is well known.  Its use as an important component in ornamental gardening and landscaping has not been given deserved attention.  With the importance of landscaping and gardening gaining, bamboo by its unique and diverse characteristic makes an ideal species for landscaping designs.  Bamboos can be ideally grown in groves hedges, on terraces, courtyards, conservatories and some of the species as potted plants.  Some of the important genera such as Bambusa, Dendrocalamus, phyllostachys, are ideal for ornamental and landscaping designs. 

 
  • Shanmughavel, P. and R.S. Peddappaiah (2002). Establishment and management techniques for bamboo plantation forests.  In: Recent advances in Bamboo Research, (eds) Sanmughavel, P., Peddappaiah, R.S. and Liese, W.,Published by the Scientific Publisher, Jodhpur pp 42-47.

This paper reports the appropriate method of planting, raising of plantation bamboo forests, management techniques, yield (productivity), felling cycle and economics.  

 
  • Shanmughavel, P., and R.S. Peddappaiah (2002). Bamboos for community forestry programme In: Recent advances in Bamboo Research, (eds) Sanmughavel, P.,Peddappaiah, R.S. and Liese, W., Published by the Scientific Publisher,Jodhpur pp 200-206.

Bamboo is integral to the culture of south -East Asia.  Over 75 genera and 1250 species are reported to occur in the globe.  India perhaps has the worlds richest diversity of bamboo, claiming about 130 species occurring over an area of 10.05 million ha. This is about 12.8 per cent of the total forest area of the country.  The bamboo diversity in natural habitat is dwindling, due to over exploitation, shifting cultivation practices and extensive forest fires.  A sustained availability can be ensured only by elaborate bamboo cultivation through community forestry programmes based upon growing trees on public (or) community land as proposed to private farms.  The degree of local participation in planting and looking after the tree varies, and the benefits are shared by community as a whole.  The methods in raising bamboo plantations through community forestry suggested. Advantages of raising bamboo plantations in rural economy are discussed.  

 
  • Shanmughavel, P, R.S. Peddappaiah and W. Liese, Recent Advances in bamboo research (2002).  Scientific Publishers Jodhpur, 288p

This edited book consist 32 characters contributed by the various researchers from India and abroad.  Broad topics covered are on improvement, propagation, plantation establishment, management, properties and uses of bamboo. 

 
  • Arun Kumar, A.N., Srinivasa, Y.B. and Chauhan, S.S. 2002.  Growth rate convergence in teak (Tectona grandis L.) Curr. Sci. 83 (7): 7-10.

Teak (Tectona grandis L) possesses distinct annual growth rings.  Field data on heartwood ring widths were measured on 168 teak trees from three sites viz, virnoli (1958); Bhagavati (1961) and Barchi (1953) which are located within a radius of 20 km from Dandeli (Haliyal Forest Division), Karnataka, India.  Four measurements were taken radically from the pith outwards in four directions approximately at 90o from each other at stump height of each tree.  Each measurement unit (MV) consisted of five rings.  Cohorts with higher growth rates during their initial stages reduced their growth rates towards the end of their juvenile period while those with lower growth rates in their initial stages increased their growth rates.  All the cohorts converged towards a common growth at end of the juvenile phase.  Results also show that differences in growth beyond MU4 among the cohorts were non-significant. 

 
  • Arunkumar, A.N. and Y.B. Srinivasa. (2003).  Stand level radial growth rate pattern reveals "Growth Convergence" in Tectona grandis.  International conference held in Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi.

Constant diameter increment for trees belonging to different diameter classes have been reported.  It appears that if the radial growth rates have to be constant across trees of different diameters, their initial growth rates must be varying, and at some point of time their growth rate should converge.  It is known at variations in the anatomical properties of wood reduce during the transition from juvenile phase to the mature phase of the tree.  We tested the hypothesis that radial growth rates of trees belonging to different radial classes converge towards the end of the juvenile phase through stump analysis of teak (Tectona grandis L). Growth pattern of 168 teak trees was analyzed after classifying the trees into four cohorts based on the radial growth accumulated over the initial 20 years.  Growth rates varied significantly among cohorts up to 15 years, but converged towards the end of the juvenile phase of tree growth (16-20 years).  Correlations show that growth up to 15 years had a significant impact on the cumulative growth.  Trees that accured larger growths during the initial 10 years accrued lesser growths during the period between 16-20 years and vice versa showing a clear growth rate compensation.  Growth beyond 20 years was relatively constant across the cohorts.  It is also shown that competition affects trees that had slower growth initially and has little influence on fast growing ones.  We discuss the implications of this study for the management of teak trees.  

 
  • Sathyakumar, S. and S.Viswanath (2003). Observations on food habits of Asiatic black bear in Kedarnath wildlife sanctuary, India: Preliminary evidence on their role in seed germination and dispersal.  Ursus 14(1): 103-208.

In India, the Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) occurs in forested habitats of the Greater Himalaya at 1,200-3,000 m elevation (Sathyakumar 2001).  Information on the feeding and movement patterns of Asiatic black bear in India is limited to 2 short studies (Manjrekar 1989, Saberwal 1989) and some observations by Schaller (1977), all in Dachigam National Park (NP) in Jammu and Kashmir, India.  The Asiatic black bear in India is an omnivore, but feeds mainly on fruits and leaves of few plant species.  Consequently, its movement depends largely on the density and distribution of these key food plants in the area.  In addition, food production is known to play a major role in reproduction of black bears (Jonkel and Cowan 1971).  In Dachigam a major proportion of Asiatic black bear diets were composed initially of sugar-rich fruits, followed by fat rich fruits before hibernation (Manjrekar, 1989).There are few studies available on feeding habits of other bear species and their effects on seed germination.  Traveset and Willson (1997) discussed effects of some birds, American black bear (Ursus americanus) and brown bear (Ursus arctos) on seed germination of fleshy-fruited plants in temperate rainforests of southeast Alaska.  Their results indicated no difference in germination rates for seeds that passed through the guts of captive birds and black and brown bears; they reported that the advantages of seed dispersal lie more in seed movement away from the parent plant than in seed treatment within the dispenser's gut.  McConkey and Galetti (1999), while reporting food and feeding habits of the Malayan sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) in Central Borneo, Indonesia, indicated that this species could be an important seed dispenser depending upon the species consumed, number of seeds ingested, and the deposition site. Asiatic black bears are well known seed predators.  Manjrekar (1989) reported that acorns (Quercus robur) and walnuts (Juglans regia) were totally crushed by black bears while feeding on them, thereby hindering dispersal.  Black bears were also reported to feed on seeds fallen on the ground, and signs of regeneration of species, walnut in particular, were reported to be low.  WE present observation on the food and feeding habits of Asiatic black bear and observations on germination of bear food plants in Kedarnath Wild life Sanctuary (WS), Western Himalaya during 1989 -92

 
  • Seema Purushothaman, L.P. Swaminathan and S. Viswanath. (2003).  Economics of NTFP valuation under different stake holder scenarios in dry deciduous forest tracts of Peninsular India.  In: Policies, management, utilization and conservation of non timber forest products (NTFPs) in the South Asia.  Proceedings of the conference organized by the ATREE, Bangalore during April 28th - 30th,2003, pp 53-56.

Extraction of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) is a significant forest use option in terms of revenue earning potential for the government as well as a source of livelihood option for the dependent indigenous forest communities.  The annual employment generation due to NTFP extraction in India is estimated to be over 5 million (Tewari, 1993), of which a considerable proportion accrues to women as compared to men.  Currently, there are about 100 million forest dwellers in the country and another 275 million for whom forests have continued to be an important source of livelihood (Lynch, 1992).  Over the years, the stakeholders of NTFPs have changed from forest-dependent indigenous communities to State Forest departments (SFDs), commission agents, drug industry and/or co-operative societies.  The obvious lack of substitutes, a wide range of stakeholders, tremendous forward linkages associated with NTFPs, and low externalities, should have made NTFP extraction a rather lucrative option.  However rapidly additional pressures on forests.  Ultimately extraction may have to be delinked from natural forests for the sake of conservation.  Economic substitutes for sources of NTFPs without adversely affecting the interests of the stakeholders have to be envisaged.  The role of some important stakeholders in this NTFP scenario in tropical dry deciduous forest (TDDF) tracts, which constitute nearly 30% of the total forests in the country, is analysed in this paper. 

 
  • Rathore, T.S., D. Annapurna, G. Joshi and  A. Srivastava (2004).  Studies on potting mixture and size of containers on the quality of seedling production in Casuarina equisetifolia forest.  Indian Forester. 130(3): 323-332.

The studies were aimed to optimize the potting mixture ingredients, their proportion and size of the container (root trainers) for the production of quality planting stock of Casuarina equisetifolia forest.  Seven combination of potting mixture ingredient (sand, soil, compost, burnt, rice husk and charcoal) were tested in various ratios for the optimization of potting mixture in 150 cc block type root trainers.  Simultaneously, four different volumes (90 cc, 150cc, 270 cc and 300 cc) of root trainers were tested for suitability of container size.  Chemical and physical analysis of potting mixture ingredients were carried out for better understanding of nutrient status, porosity, water holding capacity, bulk density, pH and conductivity.  The best seedling growth at five months age in terms of height (47.39cm), collar diameter (3.08) mm, total dry weight (4.5g) shoot dry weight (3.04g), root dry weight (1.47g) and quality index (0.26) was observed in potting mixture consisting of sand, soil, compost, burnt rice husk  and charcoal in the 30:10:50:5:5 ratio which was at par with potting  mixture consisting sand, soil, compost in the ratio of 20:20:60.  Larger size of containers (300 cc) at three months age  produced seedlings with maximum height (27.61 cm), collar diameter (2.08mm) and dry biomass (4.75 g) but had other disadvantages like more sturdiness quotient (13.67) less root shoot ratio (0.43) and no proper plug formation after 3 months.  On the other hand seedlings raised in 150 cc root trainer resulted into low sturdiness quotient (11:18), more root shoot ratio (0.62) and good plug formation and considered for planting. 

 
  • Pankaj K.Aggarwal, D.P. Khali, C.R. Sarma and C.R. Rangaswamy (1997).Establishment of agro forestry demonstration plantations in selected villages of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh- a case study.  My Forest, 33(4) 607-613.

Agro-forestry demonstration plantations have been established in thirteen villages adopted for transfer of technology by the IWST in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.  In all, 1083 farmers are involved in the programme.  Main occupation of the people in the adopted villages is agriculture.  Most of the farmers involved in the programme are small and marginal farmers.  Farmers were enlisted for the purpose after several meetings and personal contacts.  Enlisted farmers were provided with quality seedlings of teak, bamboo, silver oak, sesbania, subabul and jatropa.  Periodical visits to each of these villages are being undertaken by scientists of the institute to monitor these plantations.  Farmers are advised on management of plantation and on prophylactic/control measures of pests and diseases.  This paper deals with the socioeconomic aspects of the farmers and also constraints faced  in establishing these plantations.  Demonstration cum training progremmes, workshops and meetings carried out in these villages have also been discussed. 

 
  • Pankaj K.Aggarwal, Effect of growth stresses and their reduction in plantation grown  species - E. tereticornis for its better utilization: An approach towards forest  conservation. Proceedings 91st Indian Science Congress, 3-7 January 2004,  page   No. 22, Chandigarh.

Natural forests are depleting at a very fast rate and supply of wood from these is limited.  Plantation species,  there fore, needs to be given due importance to fulfill wood demand.  Plantation timbers have severe processing problems due to presence of growth stresses, which limits their utilization.  Trees of plantation species may be better utilized by reducing the severity of stresses on steaming/boiling or stroing the logs.  In this study, the reduction in logintudinal growth strain in logs of Eucaluptus tereticornis by heating and storing the logs was investigated.  The strain in control logs was 2.1 times of heated logs and 1.9 times of stored logs. 

 
  • Khali, D.P,  P.K. Aggarwal (2002) Agroforestry in Karnataka and Andhra  pradesh under UNDP project of  Indian Council of Forestry Research and  Education.Journal of Tropical Forestry 18(1) :3-8

The main objectives of agro forestry are to meet diverse need of people, increase employment opportunity and farm economics, enhance soil and water conservation, supplement timber, food and fodder  production, supply industrial round wood and contribute to environmental amelioration.   Keeping these objectives in mind agro forestry demonstration plantations have been established in thirteen villages in the states of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh under United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) project.  In all 1083 farmers are involved in the programme.  A total of 1,18,658 teak seedlings were distributed to these farmers which they planted in their non forest land.  Growth data was recorded after five years of plantation on randomly selected sample trees in irrigated, unirrigated and  block plantation.  Yield from the plantation is projected and is described in this publication.  The growth of plantations in irrigated condition is faster than others.  Furthermore, the study has indicated that growing teak with other crops like mulberry, grapes, groundnut etc., has no effect on the main crops. 

 
  • Sajwan, P.K., and N.Rama Rao., (2006). Ruppia maritime L. (Ruppiaceae)-  A new record to the flora of Andhra Pradesh, India.  Journal of Econ.Bot. 30:2: 433-434.

Ruppia maritime L. has been recorded for the first time from Andhra Pradesh, growing in salt pans.  

 
  • Shankaranarayana, K.H, G.Ravikumar, V.G. Angadi, K.T. Chandrashekar, S.H. Jain,and Sanjai Mohan. (2005). Evaluation of quality parameters for sandal (Santalum album) and Jigat (persea macrantha).Sowrabha, 12:61-62.

A simple UV spectroscopic method has been developed for screening of sandal (Santalum album L) plants for their oil content.  The adhesive quality of Jigat ( Persea macrantha) commonly used  as important binder in agarbathi manufacture can b e evaluated in terms of viscosity measurement on 5% aqueous solution.  Jigat water extract ( in 5% aqueous solution) on having a viscosity in the range of 75-90 poise was found to be a good binder for agarbathis.

 
  • Ranjana Arya, S.H.Jain and K.K. Chaudhuri. (2004). Status of lesser known trees in Rajasthan for their potential uses. My Forest. 40(4) 421-431.

The state of Rajasthan, popularly known as Indian Desert has rich wealth of vegetation resources, which can be utilized to meet the growing  need to growing population.  There is an increasing demand for timber, fuel and fodder, medicinal  plants, essential oils, resins, fatty oils, fats, waxes,  starches, bamboos, canes, grasses and insect products etc.  There are many plant species, which yield valuable products are not utilized properly at present, these species can be popularized and used as a substitute for enhancing  the economic value of forests.  The present paper arid land forms and explored the potentials of important tree species of Rajasthan which are lesser known due to lack of awareness of inadequate research on their silviculture, utilization, marketing  aspects etc.  

 
  • Purushothaman, S., S.Viswanath. (2004). Economic analysis of stakeholder perceptions on land use options in the peripheries of Tropical dry deciduous forests in southern India.  Paper presented in  the book 1st World Congress on Agroforestry, 27th July, 2004, Orlando, Florida, USA..

The interface of dry deciduous forests and agricultural landscapes in Anaikatty region of southern Western Ghats of India is characterized by a multitude of land uses and increasing  fallow lands.  Primary stakeholders are native marginal farmers (adivasis) who live nearest to forests.  Livelihood base of native farmers was being destabilized by soil degradation, drought, wild animal attacks, and declining access to forests, Economics of feasible land use options among stakeholders was examined to identify appropriate land use  strategies.   Existing land use patterns were identified to understand long term impacts and  possible improvements.  This was followed by a survey of primary stakeholders to gather occupational and livelihood patterns, costs, benefits and prices associated  with land uses.  The survey enabled an interactive elicitation process fir arriving at a set of feasible land uses for economic Benefit Cost Analysis( BCA).  All cash  transactions associated with selected land uses as well as other costs and benefits like opportunity cost of fodder, firewood, family labour, household consumption of farm produce, productivity charges  and net carbon sequestered, were quantified in BCA.  Though there was  lack of incentives for tree planting among adivasis, gradual realization that certain agroforestry practices could drought -proof their livelihoods was reflected in the choice of feasible land use options.  Economic rational behind these were examined with an without social and long term benefits, at 5%, 8% and 12% discount  rates.  Results showed superiority of millet-based dry farming systems with perennial fruit trees when social, ecological and economic factors were taken into account. 

  • Viswanath, S., R.S. Peddappiah, T.S. Rathore. (2004).  Enhancing biomass productivity of MPTs in agroforestry systems in southern India.  Proceedings of IUFRO International Conference on "Multipurpose trees in the tropics: assessment, growth and management" AFRI, Jodhpur pp. 534-541. 

Agroforestry has been identified as a possible solution in overcoming some of the complex  problems of subsistence agriculture in the tropics.  Integrating trees in farming systems through appropriate agroforestry  practices in seen as a way out to diversify and maximize productivity of farmlands.  Selected  woody components or proven multipurpose tree species (MPTs) may contribute to the  overall productivity and sustainability of farmlands in arid and semiarid zones through its various service benefits  or direct production functions.  MPTs in farmlands impart food security, provide livestock fodder and fuel wood to farmers in the tropics, while in developed economies farmers look for other benefits like shade, shelter, soil protection, improvement of landscape and rural environment.  Lack of technological information, especially on silvicultural management poses additional problems in extending tree planting techniques to farmers.  Thus, choice of tree species has been confined  to a mere handful like Tectona grandis, Casuarina equisetifolia, A.nilotica, A.leucophloea, A.auriculiformis, A.mangium, Eucalyptus sp., Grevellia robusta, Azadirachta indica, Leucaena leucocephala, Sesbania grandiflora and Bamboo, especially in the states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.  In farmlands, these trees have been planted in wide-row intercropping systems (for fuel wood, green manure and small timber), farm bunds and farm boundaries (for timber, green leaf manure and protective functions), in block plantations (for fodder and poles) or  as interspersed trees in croplands (for fuel wood, edible products, fodder and timber).  Yield and biomass production of these species under different management scenarios in various agroforestry practices, in the four southern states indicate that based on the management objective, direct production functions of the trees  as well as biomass productivity can be manipulated to the benefit of the  farmers. Silvicultural management like thinning has been fairly effective in block plantations and wide-row intercropping for species like teak, eucalyptus, acacias, leucaena and neem.  Canopy and root management have been found to be particularly effective  for short rotation species like Casuarina equisetilifa in wide row intercropping in terms of overall biomass production and negating adverse effects on intercrop yields. 

  • Viswanath, S., R.S. Peddappaiah, V.Subramoniam, P.Manivachakam and M. George.(2004). Management of Casuarina equisetifolia in wide-row intercropping systems for enhancing productivity.Indian Journal of Agroforestry 6: 2: 19-25.

The growth performance  and biomass production in Casuarina equisetifolia in wide row intercropping systems was evaluated under different management scenarios in Coimbatore, Tamilnadu.  Root and  canopy management practices appear to be effective in countering yield reductions intercropped turmeric.  The mean yield of intercropped turmeric in managed casuarinas tree rows was significantly higher than unmanaged trees (Control) and varied with distance from tree row.  Removal of upto 50 percent of canopy cover and installation of root barriers on either side of the tree row has positive effects on yield of turmeric crop there was no significant difference in overall growth performance of Casuarina equisetifolia in different treatments except in the fourth ear when the trees wer felled for biomass studies.  The trees recorded a mean height of 7.54 m  and a mean dbh of 7.80 cm when harvested in the fourth year.  The total biomass production in the fourth year varied from 11.62-11.59 kg/tree.  Management practices did not have significant effects on overall biomass production.  The biomass apportionment to stem was 50% higher in managed trees as compared to control trees.  The above ground biomass (agb) varied from 9.31-12.02 kg/tree while the below ground biomass (bgb) varid from 1.83-3.77 kg.tree.  Proper care and management of Casuarina equisetifolia in wide row intercropping systems appears to promote overall enhanced productivity of the system under rainfed situations in Tamil Nadu.

  • Kunhamu, T.K., B.Mohan Kumar, and S.Viswanath. (2004). Tree allometry, volume and above ground biomass yield in a seven year old acacia mangium. Willd stand at Thiruvazhamkunnu, India. Proceedings of IUFRO International Conference on Multipurpose trees in the tropics: Management and improvement strategies orgainised by AFRI, Jodhpur, pp 415-421.

A field study was conducted in a seven year old Acacia mangium.  Wild stand to characterize stand growth, yield attributes and biomass accumulation potential.  Sixty two trees falling in five girth classes (<30 cm, 31-45 cm, 46-60 cm, 61-75 cm and >75 cm) were felled during November-December 2002.  Data on total height, bole height, crown width and stem girth at different tree heights were recorded besides the  biomass yield of bole wood, branch wood, twigs and foliage.  Regressions linking  girth and height with biomass, volume production, sapwood content and leaf area were developed.  Biomass accumulation on per ha basis differed among the girth classes which ranges from 5.58 Mg ha-1 to 97.58 Mg ha-1 .  The total above ground biomass production per ha for all the size classes together was 201.24 Mg ha-1  with MAI of 35.04 Mg ha-1 yr-1.  Stem wood accounted for bulk of the above ground biomass (65-75%) followed by branch wood (12.5-25.2%), foliage (5.0-6.5%) and twigs (4.1-6.5 %).  Regression equations were developed linking above ground biomass dry weight, tree volume with GBH (cm) and tree height (m).  Prediction equations based on single  variable gave good fit with high RZ values.  Acacia mangium showed higher C sequestration potential compared to other fast growing MPTs. 

  • Arun Kumar, A.N., Y.B. Srinivasa. (2004). Stand level radial growth rate pattern reveals growth convergence in Tectona grandis L.f.  Quality  timber products of teak     from sustainable forest management 524-529.

Constant diameter increment of trees belonging to different diameter classes has been reported.  It appears that, if the radial growth rates have to be constant across trees of different diameters, their initial growth rates must be varying, and at some point  of time, the growth rate should converge. It is known that variations in anatomical properties of wood reduce during the transition from juvenile phase to the mature phase of the tree.  The hypothesis was tested through stump analysis of teak  (Tectona grandis L.f), that radial growth rates  of trees belonging to different radial classes converge towards the need of the juvenile phase.  Growth patterns of 168 teak trees were analysed after classifying them into four cohorts, based on the radial growth accumulated over the initial 20 years. Growth  rates varied significantly among cohorts up to 15 years, but converged towards the end of the juvenile phase of tree growth (16-20 years).  Correlations show that growth up to 15 years had a significant impact on the cumulative growth.  Trees that accrued larger growth during the initial  10 years, attained lesser growth during the period between 16-20 years and vice  versa, showing a clear growth rate compensation.  Growth beyond 20 years was relatively constant across the cohorts.  It is also shown that competition affects trees that had slower growth initially and has little influence on fat growing ones.  The paper discusses the implications of the findings in the management of teak trees.  

  • Remadevi, O.K., and R.Veeranna. (2005). Impact of biodeterioration on timber quality of teak in Karnataka. Quality timber products of Teak from sustainable forest   Management 283-297.

Teak, Tectona grandis (Linn) is the most valuable tree grown in natural forests and plantations of Karnataka.  Value of the timber of teak is  highly reduced due to biodeterioration by the combined activity of the teak heartwood borer, Alcterogystia cadambae (Lepidoptera; Cossidae), wood decaying microbes and termites.  A survey was conducted in the teak growing forests and plantations of 5 divisions of North Canara Circle during 2000-2002 to assess the infestation level of wood boring insects and the nture of damage.  The surveys revealed that in the infested area ( Haliyal and Yellapur Divisions) 15.85% of trees above 20 years of age showed symptoms of attack by A./cadambae  in varying degrees.  Studies were conducted in 9 timber depots located in 4 divisions of North Canara Circle to estimate the loss of tibmer biomass due to the biodeterioration.  Damage  assessment of the logs in the depots showed that an average of 11.7% of logs were damaged in varying degrees, either with hollowness of heartwood or with  borer holes or both.  On an average, 2.17% of the volume/weight of the timber is lost due to the hollowness of teak timber.  In the depots in Haliyal and Yellapur Divisiojs, 36.13% of the damaged  logs were with bore hole complexes.  Due to the damaging effects of biodeterioration, the value of teak timber is often reduced to bare minimum . 

  • Remadevi, O.K., and R.Veeranna. (2005). Impact of biodeterioration on timber quality of teak of Karnataka.  Quality timber products of teak from sustainable forest   management  283-297.

Teak, Tectona granids (linn) is the most valuable tree grown in natural forests and plantations of Karnataka.  Value of the timber of teak is highly reduced due to biodeteriortion by the combined activity of the teak heartwood borer, Alcterogystia cadambae (Lepidoptera; Cossidae), wood decaying microbes and termites.  A survey was conducted in the teak growing forests and plantations of 5 divisions of North Canara Circle during 2000-2002 to assess the infestation level of wood boring insects and nature of damage.  The surveys revealed that in the infested areas (Haliyal and Yellapur divisions) 15.85% of trees above 20 years of age showed symptoms of attack by A.cadambae in varying degrees.  Studies were conducted in 9 timber depots located in 4 divisions of north canara circle to estimate the loss  of timber biomass due to  the biodeterioration.  Damage assessment of the logs in the depots showed that an average of 11.7% of logs were damaged in varying degrees, either with hollowness of heartwood  or  with borer holes or both.  On an average 2.17% of the volume/ weight of  the timber is lost due to the  hollowness of teak timber.  In the depots in Haliyal and Yellapur divisions, 36.13: of the damaged losgs were with bore hole complexes.  Due to the damaging effects of biodeterioration, the value of teak timber is often reduced to bare minimum.

  • Ramkumar, K.Muralimohan, L.Kiranmayi and Y.B. Srinivasa. (2006). Discrete generation cycles in the tropical moth Opisina arenosella. Current Science:91:6:811-815.

Insect populations with discrete generation cycles (DGCs) have been rarely encountered in the tropics.  Among the few known species, spatially segregated costal populations of Opisina arenosella, the coconut caterpillar, have been shown to follow DGCs during out breaks in Sri Lanka.  Climatic parameters are known to be important in regulating generation cycles in insect populations.  But, unlike temperate conditions, the tropics are characterized by high spatial heterogeneity in climate, which prompted the present investigation on generation cycles of populations of O.arenosella peninsula.  Two spatially isolated populations were regularly sampled for two years and data were subjected to time series  analysis to determine periodicity, if any, in the occurrence  of different developmental stages of the population.  Results showed that populations followed DGC with a periodicity of approximately one generation, and further, correlations showed that there was a definite lead/lag in the peaks of different developmental stages, which closely corresponded to the developmental period of different stages of the insect.  The findings suggest that discrete cycles of O.arenosella may not be related to seasonality.  The importance of generation cycles with respect to pest management has also been discussed.

  • Y.B. Srinivasa, A.N. Arun Kumar, and K.D Prathapan. (2004). Canopy arthropods of Vateria indica L. and Dipterocarpus indicus Bedd. In the rainforests of Western Ghats. South India.   Current Science 86:10:1420-1425.

This study aimed at quantifying the total arthropod diversity by fogging the rainforest canopies at Makuta, Western Ghats.  Emergent canopies of Vateria indica  and Dipterocarpus indicus  were fogged with short lived pyrethroid and arthropods collected.  Arthropod samples thus obtained were comparable with those from other tropical parts of the world for species richness and diversity.  In general, arthropods from D.inducus were more diverse than those form V.indica Coleoptera tended to be more dominant and hence less diverse in canopies of both trees.  The most diverse group in D.indicus was Diptera, while Areneae was the most diverse group in V.indica canopy.  The proportion of singletons was extremely high for all the groups, often exceeding 75%.   Our results suggest that the arthropod composition of the most dominant tree species in the forest could significantly influence the composition of the samples drawn from other tree species in the same forest.

  • Viraktamath, C.A., Y.B. Srinivasa. (2006). Canopyana vateriae gen. nov. and sp..nov- A leafhopper breeding on Vateria indica and a new record of Bhatia distanti (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Selenocephalinae) from  south India.Zootaxa 1307:35-39.

Canopyana gen. nov. with Canopyana vateriae sp. nov. as type species is described and illustrated.  The new species was collected on Vateria indica L. (Dipterocarpaceae) while canopy was being sampled in Karnataka. The new genus is simplar to Kutara Distant but differs in differently placed antennal bases, shape of the head and the male genitalia.  Bhatia distanti Zhang and  webb previously known only from Sri Lanka is recorded for the first time from Western Ghats of India

 

EXTENSION 
  • Pankaj K.Aggarwal, G.Ravikumar, K.T. Chandra shekar and  K.S. Rao. (2005).Transfer of forestry and wood science technologies for the benefit of rural and sectoral communities of Karnataka (Eastern plains). My Forest 41(2A) 289-294.

Research findings become fruitful and profitable only when they reach the end users and therefore,  extension is vital in generating awareness amongst different user groups and catalyze them to absorb technologies.  The institute of Wood Science and Technology, Bangalore one of the Institute of Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education, Dehra dun  has developed various techniques which have been disseminated through research papers, seminars/workshops/conferences, media and  personal contacts.  However, in the absence of better linkages with in users, the impact of the research results has been sub optimal.  The State Forest Department of Karnataka has come forward to fund the extension activities of IWST by sponsoring a project on "Transfer of forestry  and wood science technologies for the benefit of rural and sectoral communities of Karnatakad (Eastern plains)" which has helped the institute to propogate the technologies effectively in the four districts (viz., Gulbarga, Hassan, Kolar and Dharwad) of Karnataka.

 

GENERAL PROJECTS 

  • Srinivasan, V.V., V.R. Shivaramakrishnan, C.R. Rangaswamy, H.S. AnanthaPadmanabha and K.H. Shankaranarayana (1992), Monograph on Sandal.

A monograph on sandal covering various topics of research aspects on sandal up to 1992 was published. The topics covered in monograph are Silviculture and management, chemistry, tree improvement, pest and diseases etc.

 

 
 
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