1. Question: What is wood drying
Wood drying or seasoning is removing excess moisture from wood in a
controlled manner and bringing moisture content to the required
equilibrium level depending on the end-product and the environment
in which it is to be used.
The timber of living trees and freshly felled logs contains a large
amount of water, which often constitutes over 50% of the woods
actual weight. Water has a significant influence on wood: wood
continually exchanges moisture (water) with its surroundings,
although the rate of exchange is strongly affected by the degree
wood is sealed.
2. Question: How the moisture present is wood?
Answer: Water in wood may be present in two forms:
Free water: The bulk of water contained in the cell lumina is only
held by capillary forces: it is not bound chemically and is termed
free water. Free water is not in the same thermodynamic state as
liquid water: energy is required to overcome the
forces. Furthermore, free water may contain chemicals, altering the
Bound or hygroscopic water: Bound water is bound to the wood via
The attraction of wood for water arises from the presence of free
(OH) groups in the
molecules in the cell wall. The hydroxyl groups are negatively
charged electrically. Water is a polar liquid. The free hydroxyl
groups in cellulose attract and hold water by hydrogen bonding.
3. Question: What are the advantages of wood drying?
risk of developing stain, decay, or mold as a result of fungal
is typically more than twice as strong as wet timber
improves nail and screw holding properties of wood
Dried wood is
easy for transportation and handling
improves dimensional stability
improves gluing, machining, and finishing
improves electrical and thermal insulation
Dried wood is
easy to treat with preservatives
4. Question: What is Equivalent moisture content
Answer: The equilibrium moisture content (EMC) is the
at which the wood is neither gaining or losing moisture; this
however, is a dynamic equilibrium and changes with relative humidity
5. Question: What is wood preservative?
Answer: Wood Preservatives are chemical
substances, which are applied to wood to make it resistant to attack
against decaying agents.
6. Question: What are the advantages of wood
durable timbers/ Bamboo when suitably treated, would give adequate
life under service conditions.
maintenance costs by avoiding frequent replacements of timber.
choice of timber species for different end uses by upgrading the
non-durable timbers to durable timbers.
treatment of timber/bamboo, therefore, forms a very important
part of the national effort to conserve the material resources
of the country.
7. Question: What are the common agents of wood
8. Question: What is wood modification
Wood modification is the changing the chemical structure of wood by
physical (thermal modification) or chemical treatments (chemical
modification). One of the most important chemical modification
reactions is acetylation of wood wherein, the free hydroxyl groups
within the wood are replaced by hydrophobic acetyl groups. This
reduces the ability of the wood to absorb water to great extent,
rendering the wood more dimensionally stable and durable.
9. Question: What are the properties of chemically modified
Outstanding dimensional stability
Improved durability - class 1 durability.
coatings adhesion and enhances the service life of paints and varnishes.
Superior resistance to the effects of UV exposure therefore the
natural appearance is retained for longer duration.
Modified wood retained natural strength and beauty
Modified wood is non-toxic and can be safely reused and recycled
wood can substitute wood that has been chemically
treated using toxic preservatives.
10. Question: Is it
possible to hire IWST as a consultant for different forestry
undertakes consultancy projects under various forestry disciplines.
Please contact Director for further details.
11. Question: Can I
undergo a short term training in one of the labs of IWST?
refer the website and write to Director, IWST from your Institution
12. Question: Will I get
advise on what kind of trees to plant in my land and how to
Answer: Yes. Contact
the Extension Officer. He may direct you to concerned Scientist if
13. Question: What are
the different bamboo species for which tissue culture protocol
has been developed?
Answer: We have
already developed tissue culture protocols for Dendrocalamus
strictus, Bambusa arundinacea, Oxytenanthera stocksii,
Bambusa nutans and Dendrocalamus brandisii, Guadua
14. Question: Are TC
plants of bamboo available for sale?. If so what is the cost ?
plants of D. stocksii and Guadua angustifolia are available. The
price fixed for TC plants is rs 20/plant and for rooted cuttings it
is Rs 10/plant. Pl contact Director, IWST for further details
the tissue culture plants evaluated for their performance in the
Answer: We are
presently field-testing tissue culture raised plants of bamboo and
comparing their growth performance with seedlings and vegetative
At 4 yr we have not found any significant
difference in growth performance.
16. Question: Can the
equipments in the laboratory be utilised for research purposes
universities/ private organizations?
Answer: Yes. But prior
permission from the Director, IFGTB, need to be obtained through
17. Question: Do you
sell tree seeds? If so what is the cost and related details.
Answer: No. We do not
sell for frest tree seeds. You may contact IFGTB, our sister
Institute. They sell seeds of Casuarina, Eucalyptus, Acacia, Teak
and Neem. Cost details are available at FAQs of IFGTB, Coimbatore.
18. Question: Is it
possible to carryout thesis/dissertation/project work at your
Answer: Yes, students
are selected for carrying out thesis / dissertation / project work
at IWST. The Director, IWSTmay be contacted for further details.
19. Question: On what
aspects does the Institute provide training?
Answer: Please visit
website of IWST
20. Question: Is there
any service available to diagnose pests and disease problems of
forest seeds, nurseries and plantations?
available for diagnose of forest nurseries and plantations pests
Can sandalwood trees be grown by farmer on his private land
Yes. Amendments to Forest act in 2001 and 2002 have
recognized private ownership of tree.
Can one sell the tree to any private individual ?
Currently in Karnataka one can sell the tree to State
Forest Dept. Since 2006 notified Govt agencies like KSDL and KSHDC
are also authorized to procure sandalwood from private farmers
Does one get smell of sandal oil when walking through a
No, only when the tree is cut the fragrance is emitted. In fact, sandal
wood fragrance and oil is obtained from heartwood portion of the
tree and not from any part of the tree such as bark, leaves, flowers
Can sandal trees can be harvested by the end of ten years ?
No, presently there is no concrete evidence suggesting that sandal can be
harvested by the end of 10 years because the available literature
clearly says that heartwood initiation starts only after 7th or 8th
year. The Sandal brouchure of IWST based on available literature and
data from sandal depots of State Forest Depts says that trees may be
harvested after 15 -20 yrs. The longer it is retained the value will
increase but risk factors like possibility of theft may also
Are there varieties or clones of sandalwood available in
the market which have high oil content?
No, at present there are no clones or varieties available.
However, studies conducted at the institute have shown few clones to
have high oil content. But studies are still in progress and clones
are not available for sale.
How does sandal respond to irrigation and fertilisation?
As any other tree, sandal responds very well to irrigation,
but till today we do not have a scientific evidence that can suggest
that because of irrigation and fertilisation the oil content can
Sandal tree is a very delicate tree hence can it be grown
No, in nature sandal trees basically grows well in harsh conditions. In
fact it grows in dry and scrub forests and the finest oil obtained
is from trees growing in such harsh conditions.
Once heartwood is formed will sandal oil also be present ?
No, heartwood formation and oil formation are two independent processes.
Oil formation can happen only if heartwood is there, but it is not
necessary that they have to occur simultaneously, however as the
tree ages oil formation does takes place.
Is sandal cultivation a profitable enterprise ?
Yes, sandal cultivation is profitable. Cost of sandal oil
is not expected to reduce in the near future. Though, the yield will
not be available immediately as in case of short term agricultural
or horticultural crop, the profit earned will certainly be of very
high proportion compared to the expenses incurred.
Are tissue culture plants of sandal available in market?
Currently we are not aware of any such plants. IWST has
produced tissue culture plants under lab conditions. However
commercial scale production still requires some fine tuning at R&D
Are seedlings of sandal available with IWST ?. If so what
is the price?
Since 2006, IWST has been raising Quality planting stock of
sandal seedlings on a large scale. Till 2009 the price was Rs
10/seedling. This is expected to be revised to Rs 15/seedling from
June 2010 considering the enhance production cost.
Is there heavy demand for sandal seedlings from public ?.
Yes. Currently IWST is not able to fully meet the
demand from sandal seedlings raised from various stake holders.
Can we give indent for purchase of sandal seedlings in
Yes. We accept indents and prioritize the seedling delivery
on first come first basis.
Is there any literature on sandal cultivation at IWST?
Yes. IWST has published a brochure on Sandalwood and it is
available to general public for Rs 60/-. Interested parties may
please contact Extension Officer, IWST.
Does IWST conduct specialized training programmes on sandal
Yes. Two trainings of 5 day duration are conducted in
month of feb and Sept every year. Please see website for details.
Interested parties can write to Director, IWST.
What is the course fee for such training and what all
information does one get?
Currently the course fee is Rs 7500/- which includes
boarding, lodging, study materials and field tours. The fee can be
paid by DD in favour of director, IWST. This course is comprehensive
and covers various aspects of sandal cultivation right from seed
collection, processing, pre treatment, seed germination, nursery
raising and maintenance, aftercare, plant protection, chemistry
aspects of sandal oil, designing sandal based agroforestry, economics, policy aspects and sale
procedures. This course has been appreciated by commercial nursery
managers, farmers and private anterpreuners.
37. Question: Without
biological deterioration how long can wood be durable and
Answer: Wood can
remain undamaged for thousands of years if protected against
biodeterioration. The strength and life of timber is determined by
the characters of the species of wood.
38. Question: In 100%
dry situations, can the decay fungi attack and damage wood?
moisture, the decay fungi cannot live and hence they cannot attack
wood. At least 20% moisture is normally required.
39. Question: What is
timber packing and dunnage?
Answer: Packing is
used to support, protect or carry a commodity and can be made of
timber or other materials. Packing includes dunnage, pallets,
crating, packing blocks, drums, cases etc. Dunnage is used to secure
or support a commodity but does not remain associated with the
40. Question: What is ISPM 15 and why was it developed?
Answer: ISPM 15 is the
'International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures Publication No.
15: Guidelines for Regulating Wood Packaging Material in
International Trade'. ISPM 15 was developed to address the global
spread of timber pests by regulating the movement of timber packing
and dunnage in international trade. It describes phytosanitary
measures to reduce the risk of introduction and/or spread of
quarantine pests associated with timber packing material.
41. Question: Who
developed and endorsed ISPM 15?
Answer: The United
Nations Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO) addresses plant
quarantine through the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC).
The IPPC is an international treaty administered by the FAO and
implemented through the cooperation of member governments. India is
a member or 'contracting party' to the treaty. ISPMs are recognised
as the basis for phytosanitary measures applied by members of the
World Trade Organisation (WTO) under the Agreement on the
Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures.
42. Question: Will
fumigating wooden pallets and boxes get rid of Fungal infection?
Answer: No. Methyl
bromide is very effective against insect pests, but is not lethal to
commonly found fungal species. Anti-fungal treatment of the wooden
packaging material is required to avoid fungal attack.
43. Question: Why does
the revised (2009) ISPM-15 require all timber packing (including dunnage) to be free of bark?
Answer: Bark harbours
many pathogens and insect pests of quarantine concern. The
presence of bark also hampers inspection procedures and may reduce
the effectiveness of methyl bromide fumigation. For these reasons,
countries require imported timber packing to be free of bark.
44. Question: Do the ISPM 15 approved measures of heat treatment and methyl bromide
fumigation offer permanent protection to timber packing against
timber and non-timber pests?
Answer: The treatments
only control pests present at the time of treatment. Post-treatment
infestation of solid timber packing is an important quarantine